SYNTHETIC FIBERS, POLYMERS
GASES and LIQUIDS
Synthetic Forest is the portal to the conjunctive exploration of Matter: roots to electronics, from the fundaments of Alchemy to biotechnological applications, from Gluconeogenesis to Photosynthesis. This forest spurs a center of technological development over the Balanced use of Natural Resources.
Inside the Synthetic Forest you will be able to explore your interests in our the Global Directive of Eco-Technological Development
The Synthetic Forest wasn't separate from the Green New Deal... the Synthetic Forest was the CONTRAST to the Green New Deal.
The Synthetic Forest is the Contraposition of what Nature Made and Makes and what Culturaly Derived Practices of Technology derived and will derive for the future, so in this way every effort of remediation of the Planet is included in the prospective view of what the Synthetic Forest is and will be. The continuous evaluation of Our use of technology along the Eco-Temporal Evaluation of Use and Resources is what prompts Us Here.
The BLACK HOLE PROJECT: Currency in the 20th century has ALWAYS been Virtual. Gold has value as a thermal conductor and as a precious metal for decoration but it isn't currency unless exchanged, so in this way the fallacy of a Gold Market goes along any market of goods exchanged for piecewise monetary value , valuation in paper. So then currency is anihilated against real actions but the surplus generated by the methods of ingress terms the excess of return, in the form of savings as an excess that is virtual i.e. "It does not exist if it is not Reacting". This is why a large tax rate on large earners levels the economy towards regressing drivers of poverty and social inequality. This idea is a tough concept to understand because it apparently counters laissez-faire capitalism but in reality it creates a "Heavenly Ceiling" of what can be achievable. The extreme of capitalist success is greed because there's a crux where social positivism is ignored towards only self gain and it is in this crux where large corporations MUST choose to improve society rather than mine its components, is there beauty in a 50-0 baseball game, in a 200-10 basketball game? No. Beauty is generated when the balance of fruition and decay are in place to generate a sustainable new generation. So The Black Hole is the opening of the market first in the understanding that only one back account with a directed revolving line of credit is sufficient to eliminate poverty, and that in assembly, in constitution, and in form, through a concerted effort, the drivers of poverty, crime and illness can be eliminated if and only if one line of credit is opened, and this is what I call The Black Hole. A recognition of the inequalities of the system allows for a recognition of human classes and a contradiction to the foundational values of democracy, fairness, health, and erradication of slavery.
The Synthetic Forest was created with the Contraposing thought that the answer was a Green New Deal; with the forethought that the post war eras and boom of the United States were tied to industrial production but in that through observant recognition of market failures (bubbles) the system had derived conditions that favored stratification instead of a merit based system. The Synthetic Forest was also designed with the prevaricate that a distant observer would devise a human made (artificial) forest to objection and as a consequence a Green New Deal would emerge, where recongition of the bounds of both economy and technology would suffice to generate a central solution, that beyond theoretical vertices of analysis, in its implementation, it could, and can be achieved, so adherence to the Synthetic Forest is adherence to the tenets of the Green New deal... it is why I designed the website with red gray black and white colors, so that an observer could have devised that green was lacking, that green was the solution and that only through a concerted effort of merging public and private interests a Green New Deal could emerge. While this arrives us to the philosophical argument of the Green New Deal, we lack the resolve of Congress and of the People to Vote towards concrete actions and that's where The Synthetic Forest promotes the conversation of "How Synthetic can We Make The Green New Deal?" Without a REAL Understanding of how government functions: the assumptions that government is a taxing entity demonize government's role (see Liability Theory)
There are further actions to this Virtual Proposal and only in adherence to a form of understanding that Humans are the Drivers of the Economy, we can remediate what is lacking in the Human Experience: greater and broader quality of life.
The Synthetic Forest also prompts towards PROJECT MORATORIUM: a reduction in total Global Working Hours: There is Zero reason why someone in Asia has to work 3 times as much as person in a first economy country, and this reason in corrolary to the Moral Argument that if one excess persists then the responsibility to uphold Human values, i.e. consciousness, dictates. So if there is a moral responsibility to care for nations far away... The Planet is One, so the Imperative is Obvious, We Must Care. How we care is the Big Question, and before Water Quality becomes a driver of conversations demanding International Pressure to countries far away to reduce their Culturaly Accepted Practices, We must have the conversation and enact laws that set the example.
That is why I created the Wind Bar: The Wind Bar is the center for the exchange of Culturally Accepted Ideas and how the ideas can be contraposed "In-Play" to ferment dialogue that leads to practical solutions. The world will not be saved in one day but Love for the World can save it. The Change of Attitudes takes an infinitesimal moment and that is how with conscious efforts of implementing pragmatic solutions that We can generate a More Perfect Unity of Nations.
The answer to the GREEN NEW DEAL and the Endless possibilities are that We have Infinite Money... our Budget for implementing the measures of Infinite Energy and Workd result only from the vastness of debt that is created as a result of depletion of resources, humans included and that is the definition of debt. The Green New deal is the mitigation of resources towards reducing debt in Eco-Temporal Management of resources, jobs included, and the consequent conversation that is initroduced by this understanding is how we balance the needs and wants of a compulsive capitalist system that drives poverty in COUNTERBALANCE to the health and resources of an INFINITE VIRTUAL ECONOMY.
The GREEN NEW DEAL is paramount on the completion of the improvement along and against climate change. Climate change is global warming : a runaway reaction from which humans may not survive. 130’F in New York City summer would be fathomable at this present rate catastrophic beyond recognition. The measures to complete the Green New Deal require tough directed enforcement and today the world is ready, anxious, to establish the measures that reduce total waste generation. POVERTY is UNACCEPTABLE
LACK of HEALTH is UNACCEPTABLE
LACK of WORK is UNACCEPTABLE
The drivers of The Green New Deal are Elemental.
In the Philosophy of Manufacturing there are No Losses: i.e. Goods Made and Goods Sold occur in one spot: the client is at the doorstep of the manufacturing arena LITERALLY, so there are no Eco-Temporal losses of manufacturing philosophically but realistically there are losses of Time-Money-and Product Losses by Competition.Understanding that COLLUSION CANNOT BE TAUGHT brings an understanding to global current economic drivers and INDICATORS remains: The Continuity of the Answers remains on how the questions are continually reevaluated to perfection, so the generation of concepts does not cease until perfected systems exist to meet the demands of problem generators and problem solvers. INDICATORS: Can digital systems remove Puerto Rico from poverty and make it a cash flow positive Nation? Yes. The solution to the Puerto Rico colonial issue can be solved by placing an INDICATOR over the island. When negotiations result in contracts that amount to double and triple taxation, in comparison to mainland states, the poorest states have lower costs of living than the Island of Puerto Rico. INDICATORS is a solvency measure: Puerto Rico is an island of 100 x 35 miles... what happens in Puerto Rico is localized to a greater extent than any 'continental' country. Government metrics in an island can be tracked daily and transparently to perfection. Digital Graphical displays of day to day operations under closed system models can generate a cash flow model that is visible and a driver for the elimination of poverty issues only if current bonds are shortened and defaulted. An island with 60% of the population living under the poverty level should not bear Constitutional Territorial Clauses that cement the island into Generations of Poverty. A visible INDICATOR of Day - to - Day operations in the island would suffice to solve Poverty, Neglect and Colonial Dictatorialism. Colonialism is Open Slavery because there aren't justifications to the differential treatment of citizens when assumptions for exploitation of human resources are implemented. INDICATORS is also a solver to the Island's enormous corruption problems. Where does 50 Billion in subsidies go? Cost of Living is a major problem. Puerto Rico has an unemployment problem that illustrates how unemployment is generated rather than consequent to market behavior: there is absolutely no reason why anyone in the island should be unemployed, because of the island's needs, expected cost of living, and scientific technological proficiency. Yes, INDICATOR is a visible Day-to-Day Measure of Progress of solvency in the Island. Progress can be measured daily and address graphically, visually and ultimately socially by observing daily inputs and outputs in Real Time: How much was generated by tolls in one day? How much did the per capita income grow per day? How much cash arrived to the island as part of Imports and how much did Puerto Ricans pay in taxes? This solution can set an example of Closed-System-Economics whereby Puerto Ricans will observe the incentive of Step-Wise-Functions into how internal problems are solved and also outlines how disparate colonial rule is on today's globalized community. The Puerto Rican government can establish this measure tomorrow by placing monitors whereby indicators are measured daily, creating involvement in every sector of the population. Indicators of Costs, Efficiencies, GDP, The main economical problems of the island result from the colonially generated inflation initially. Socially, lack of representation in the US Congress because of territorial clauses, presents the major issue for which no political party has emerged with a solution to solving US Congress lack of representation. Interdependence is a model whereby Puerto Rico interacts with the United States in true Commonwealth status, just like any European Union country would interact with the EU. Polical duplicity, energy generation, and job creation are major problems. Transport Problems: Train system for fast and economical transport of passengers and cargo is the long term solution to the island's eco-technological sector. Cars will persist but only using a Train system would reduce contamination and improve work efficiencies after the efficiencies are translated in total work reduction hours. 40h weeks should fundamentaly allow all workers realistic paths to retirement. INTERDEPENDENCE: Commonwealth with Representation in Congress. Puerto Rico has a higher population than 21 States. Puerto Rico has its own Constitution but this contitution does not grant Sovereignty: Amendment XXIV should grant PR the right to vote for the President, and Amendment XVII should allow Puerto Rico to be represented with 6 representatives and 2 senators. INTERDEPENDENCE is Higher than Statehood. INTERDEPENDENCE is the elimination of Colonialism towards a REAL ATTITUDE that Puerto Rico is an Independent Nation with Ties to the United States of America. Only Puerto Rico has the Option of becoming truly INTERDEPENDENT with the United States and this solution can only be brought by Puerto Ricans. Puerto Ricans should understand that Puerto Rico is a territory, a posession, granted by the Constitution. GREEN NEW DEAL The Green New Deal is the correct mitigation to the National Emergency of Climate disparragement. Acceptance without a change in consciousness presents a real problem for which the right incentives in implementing science policy remain true and a challenge on long term enforcement. While step one is communication, the real parameters of tracking climactic progress, like totals solids in air (mg/m^3), volatile organics, cancer related to environmental pollution. The responsibility of generating a Cleaner Planet is shared. Mental attitudes needed to change our relationship with the Planet against the problems of consumption, the consensus of top executives in addressing, consumption, in unison, will be a great force of change and sustenance that the Nation needs a quantum change in outputs. GREEN NEW DEAL The Green New Deal is further than an attitude: it is the Highlighting that erradication of World Ills is possible when resources are used directed towards eliminating ills: colonialism, greed, ignorance, racism, lack of empathy, erradication of hate and illness, and providing every person the impetus and notion that in every way structures of government are there to guide them and protect them from harm. TAXATION AND THE GREEN NEW DEAL Didn't we already referred to The BLACK HOLE PROJECT?! Attempts to place taxation burdens on the Reconstruction Plan for The Improvement of Earth are attempts at establishing Anarchy, and how can Anarchy be established while sustaining a form of government that favors social stratification??? This is a paradox that cannot be sustained. What the Green New Deal calls in play is FAIRNESS. Only fairness can abound to the tenets of THE CONSTITUTION. Adherence THE CONSTITUTION can be the only definition of being an American. We play by the rules and the rules are fair and the rules don't result in abuse if merit based systems are established. Social Responsibility is why government exists, otherwise under Liability Theory, the State would be permanently at CIVIL WAR with itself. This paradox is why taxation under the Green New Deal is a driver for not only American Recovery, but recovery in the United States is reflected in other countries who see the examples of Freedom We as a Nation Represent. Isn't this a fundamental argument about who we are as a Nation? Taxation will only be viewed as overriding freedom through inflective argumentation appealing to greed, yet the Green New Deal, over all values warrants Independence, Health, and Stability over impositional tenets of Umbrella Governments with Inneficiencies. That is why Government involvement in the Private Sector through incentives and regulations serves as arbiter of The Greater Freedom and this is why it is Imperative that beyond consensus, The Green New Deal gets established not only locally but internationally so that the Prime Directive of establishing thriving economies against systems that may amount to Modern Day Slavery. If a working class person has Zero Chance of establishing a decent mode of living while sustaining the moral arguments for which legacy values are upheld in Family and Society, the Green New Deal, in all its forms, establishes the realization that Everyone contributes to the Nation and not only personal interests, that is why we are all in this together and that is why arguments against the practicality of taxation measures are resumed in lack of involvement, and we cannot afford to not care. Isn't this a fundamental argument about who we are as a Nation? Micromanaging the argument for all it's rethoricals is taking consensus and reshaping it into nameless words of how social responsibility functions best. REDUCING TOTAL TAXATION No argument of The Green New Deal is complete without the answer to appeasing the ideation that taxation inhibits personal freedom: The rethorical answer: Understand first economics, then understand how economics are played to your detriment. Knowing that social wealth is an exponential distribution that is fundamentally unbalanced creates the understading that economic structures are mining not only human intellect and energy but preventing humans from enjoying the quality of life This Life brings! Total Taxation of the working class should be reduced in a form that allows the working class to enjoy life for its gift, and the gift of life isn't only optimizing manufacturing capabilities. The gift of life is returned in productivity balanced with health. TAX EQUATION & TAX TABLES FEDERAL REGULATION UNIFORMITY Reducing the total verbiage of the federal codes remains a challenge to those who lack the understanding of how policy is generated. Without the participation of readers and communicators, the Nation is lost in implementation, and this isn’t in any consideration of garbage Fox coverage that aims to trivialize every argument in pro of “low level analysis” i.e. day to day progress on the hypocrisy of moral waste rationalization. This presents a great problem because the code was generated with ambiguity that allows lax coverage for methods of production, implementation and guidance. The Nation is lost on “I don’t care” and the grave problem of the lack of continuity in addressing long term goals like the accepted Green New Deal present the major disagreement with our international partners, who view the USA as a lost cause in the improvement of global consensus of Clean Air and Water. The participation of global observers of our progress is key to bridging the lack of understanding that the current methods of climate control are based on a duplicitous, double negative assessment that lack of control in Third World Countries is collateral and rationalization to the directive of mitigating climate change factors. We must eliminate hate from all forms of language. Labels of “color” , “I hate this”, are too common and open the mind to ideas that somewhat the Dreams of Martin Luther King Jr. were ignored forgotten. WIND BAR CROSS CULTURAL STIGMATIZATION Cross Cultural Stigmas and how Judicial System Implementation is generated locally presents a limit to Green New Deal Goals. 04MAY2019. The Synthetic Forest is aimed at forming the Center for the interaction of Scientists, Engineers, and Leaders of the Eco-Technological Drivers of Technology, and this includes market leaders. Write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org for feedback into how we can make this site a More Perfect Center for Development.
|Contribute||Machine Home||Definitions||Spanish||Contact List|
|Investors||Solar Power||Links||French||Links List||Photos|
|(M): Equations and Functionality||Local Initiatives and Activities|
Get Quotations, Get Pricing, Get Information for your Engineering, Scientific or Personal Interest Applications. BUSINESS PLAN: Our Business Plan is to make Synthetic Forest a Social Networking Platform.
ECONOMIC STREAMS: STREAMS OF INCOME: Dear Investor, Synthetic Forest is solely owned and operated by Yerai Oliveras. Synthetic Forest seeks sponsorship at negotiable rates of return for Series A Funding.At this state what we seek is Turnover Capital to Integrate software programming into a more marketable product applealing to EVERY Product Sector in between Herbally Derived Product to Syntheticaly Derived Chemicals. Our breadth of Clientele is Ample and that can be targetted with the Trademarked name of Synthetic Forest.
Secondly, We seek Sponsorship to filter out competitors. For example, we would only cater to Nike, New Balance and Exclude Adidas or sell only Adidas and Exclude New Balance and Nike, and this model can be applicable to Biotechnologeical Companies seeking the POPULARIZATION of trending technology. Are you onboard Shimadzu, Agilent, Gentech, etc.
The Drivers for Biotechnological R&D are High Tech companies that are not well known and I having a background in Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Manufacturing, Pharmacology, Genetics, Analytical and Organic Processes can serve as a driver to produce both articles, and the Center for Information where such products are talked about, networked, trobleshooted in FORUMS and Progressed upon.
REVENUE STREAMS in the form of Publications, Announcements, Trends in Technology, Popularization of High End Products and Technology and also weeding out the vast trends of misingormation that abounda in the Internet.
REVENUE STREAMS in the form of Services by consulting of professinals directly involved in The Synthetic Forest. We can hire and train for a multitude of project types and by providing Engineering Services the site can be funde.
No memberships have been contemplated for the public streams of information but memberships can become revenue streams if the website offers high end software tied to high end technologic development and 3-D VIRTUAL REALITY is the forthcoming generation in Eco-Technological Development for which We at Synthetic Forest seek to be at the forefront.
REVENUE STREAMS: Distribution: Discounts: Synthetic Forest does not seek to become a direct distributor of any products, there are already heavy competitors of product distributors. What we seek is to centralize the discussions about those products and to display them in a Virtual Center. For this we have elaborated a plan for establishing a discount center for technologies that are distributed elsewhere. For example: a visitor to the site opens a user account and navigates through the eShop and wants to buy a solar panel, then the visitor accesses a digital discount from Synthetic Forest that can be used to buy directly from Solar Panel Distributor. In this way our Center can allow for product-on-display competition and for discount competition, establishing two levels in addition of what is discussed in the Forums.
CURRICULI: EDUCATIONAL DRIVERS IN THE ECONOMY
Human Resources are the BRAINS Driving the Economy, not Artificial Intelligence. Because Humans will FOREVER Dictate what Machines Make and Follow the Orientation of Humans towards maximizing productivity is Key to Urban Development. Of this Proficiency in the sciences is key albeit where science is practiced, be it in music, marketing, cancer research or managing a small store, proficiency in the sciences will be the driver of education towards a more sustainable future and MUST be supported through efforts of popularization, socialization, and networking using the Internet. It is our goal to be able to standardize Curriculums globally to drive economic development in balance with resources i.e. there is no excuse to develop 100 engineers to unemployment. A reality check should abound that on scarcity, the methods and educational tools taught should be transparently limited and new methods developed to keep social productivity, on the other hand if social development results in a competition to major losses, or if social mechanisms aren't equating talent then these methods must be continually evaluated. That's why we're here.
Were're also here because we want to develop the Next Generation of Astronauts that will settle on THE NEXT PLANET: MARS. Our goal of Centralizing Education is alongside the efforts to live on Mars. What are the latest trends in technology development here on Earth that are applicable to Terraforming Mars?
There's water on Mars, so what's next? MARS TERRAFORMING END
Green Energy Engineering
Contribute to this initiative. Plant a seed.
NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS
NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS
NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS
NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS: NUTRITION TRENDS
What to Eat, What not to Eat.
When to Eat and When not to Eat.
Best references and best Nutritional Consultants Here.
For all your needs inside the SSFF.
What is Healthy?
Inside the SSFF 2014 you will find the best Nutrients for all your exercise needs.
SSSFFF is guided by scientific and empirical methods that will drive your performance needs to new heights.
The Body is a Machine. The Mind (Esprit 念頭 मन Разум) is a Synthetic Forest. Your body is a Chemical Site.
Next time you stop to put gas in your vehicle make sure you've counted essential Ions, not only Essential Amino Acids.
Get Ready: you are about to encounter a New Source of Energy here...
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Lets start off Creating a couple of Chararacters to develop some dietary programs for these fictional people:
1- Mr. A: Works 50 hours a week. Has 2 children. Wakes up at 6:00am. Goes to sleep at 12:00pm. Drinks socially but does not smoke.
2- Mrs. A: Works 50 hours a week. Has no children. is Asthmatic.
3- Mr. B: Is a grandfather. Retired. Has been inactive in regular athletic activities for 2 years or more. Has diabetes, and heart problems
4- Mr. C: Works 40 hours a week drinks, and smokes. No preexisting condition.
5- Ms. C: High school athlete. Practices sports 3 to 5 days a week.
6- Mr D: Professional Athlete seeking strength over endurance.
7- Mrs D: Professional Athlete seeking endurance over strength.
8- Mr. E: Bodybuilder non-competitive.
9- Mrs. E. Bodybuilder competitive.
10- Mr. F: Student.
FIRST NOTEDietary Requirements for 1 through 10
|Vitamin A||Vitamin||Group of Organic Compounds||
Retinyl Palmitate to Retinol
|Growth, Development, Eye Functions|
|Vitamin B||Vitamin||Group of Organic Compounds||
|Vitamin C||Vitamin||L-Ascorbate||100mg - 300mg||Ascorbic Acid, Tomato, Chili Peppers, Bell Peppers, Green Peppers...||
Enzyme Co Factor
|Vitamin D||Vitamin||Fat Soluble Steroids||UV + 7-dehydrocholesterol||
Prevents Rickets: Osteomalacia
|Vitamin E||Vitamin||Fat Soluble||7-20 mg/day||
Wheats, Oils, Fruits
|Vitamin K||Vitamin||Fat Soluble Organic Compounds of variable Isoprenoid Chain Length||Kale, Spinach, Mustard, Asparagus||
|Folic Acid||Vitamin||Vitamin B||
DNA repair and Methylation
|Salts||Salt||Salts are Ionic Bonds||?||Salts||
Stimulation of Neuronal Activity
|Co Factors||Co Factors||?||Co Factors|
|Water||See below||?||See below||
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SECOND NOTE Types of Workout Routines for 1 - 10
|Base Level||Ramp Up Level||Rest Level / wk||Goal|
|1||Isolation vs Total Body Workout||Weekly Ramp Up cycle after 4 weeks.||2-3 days||8hours of sustained 2x heart rate = Calorie Consumption to match calorie intake.|
|2||Isolation vs Total Body Workout||2 days||Increase Oxygenation efficiency. Improve Lung Capacity.|
|3||Osteoporosis, Tissue Breakdown prevention||Daily Ramp up to max||2 days||
Prevent Muscle and Bone Clastification
Stimulate hormonal sythesis
|4||Increase CardioPulmonary Level. Increase Muscle Mass.||4||Maintain balanced caloric input/output|
|5||Muscle Growth and Muscle Development||At same Mass, increase yield by increasing REPS.||2-3 days per week.||Match Slow to Fast Muscle Response to Sport.|
|6||Deep Muscle strength||Anabolic Growth||2 days per week||
Power = FXD
Efficiency = Wout/Win
|7||Develop Muscle Memory, Sustained cellular response at optimum level.||
Anabolic / Catabolic Balance
Trials at optimum level to chart dietary requirements.
|1 day per week or less||
Power = FXD
Speed = dd/dt
Sustained 80% yield over time increase.
|8||Sustain CardioPulmonary Level. Prevent Muscle Breakdow||1.5||Increased Muscle Mass and Tone|
|9||Sustain CardioPulmonary Level. Prevent Muscle Breakdow||1.5|
|10||Sustain CardioPulmonary Level. Prevent Muscle Breakdown.||No Overwork||3-4 days per week||Improved Circulation|
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THIRD NOTE HYDRATION
How much water should you ingest? Should you ingest water during Exercise? Should you ingest water prior to exercise?
Water is a small molecule that bonds to itself, making a larger molecule by virtue of interaction. Water interacts with most substances because it is dipolar. Make it H-OH, or write it H-O-H, or write it +/- +H-O-H+ there is an interesting interaction of water with all that lives. Protonation changes the Amino Acids into Acidic or Basic Form. So water loss creates a large interaction in your body with amino acids, evidently during exercise a bit of water helps and an excess of water creates weight. So there is an OPTIMAL amount of water that can be ingested.
Count all food as .60 water. Recall WATER IS FOOD!!! when you drink water After exercise, you digest the breakdown of Storaged Fats and Sugars by the Process of GLUCOLYSIS. We'll Explore GLUCOLYSIS In-Depth in THE SYNTHETIC FOREST< Glucolysis.
Take 2.5 Liters of Water as the Average recommended intake. Is this good? First calculate your body volume...... get ready to mop the floor... fill in your tub with a known amount of water in Liters. take your time. mark the high water level. Then get in, completely, you will need a large container if you don't fit completely in the tub. Mark the high mark and get out. This is the volume of water lost and the difference is your body's volume. Divide 2.5 by your body volume....
2.5/X = fraction of water per total body volume... Enter Body Volume Index or BVI. write it down and forget it. At the moment you don't need to calculate this unless you are D type or plus.
|Essential AA at SSSFFF|
Polar uncharged amino acids Hydrophilic
(Serine, Threonine, Glutamine, Asparagine, Tyrosine, Cysteine)
Form hydrogen bonds
Cystein can form covalent disulfide bonds
Proline has a unique structure and causes kinks in the protein chain
The nonpolar amino acids
(Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Proline)
Hydrophobic and are usually found in the center of the protein.
They are also found in proteins which are associated with cell membranes.
Electrically charged amino acids. Charged.
Aspartic Acid, Glutate, Lysine, Arginine, and Histidine
Electrical properties that can change depending on the pH
|Essential AminoAcids||F V T W M L I K H|
|Dispensable||A D N E S|
Between 10-40 mg/kg
|Amount of water per AA||?|
|Net Protein Utilization||?|
|Protein Digestability Score||?|
|Metrics for Ingestion||
Measure by performance... measure by recuperation... measure by tape.... measure by ingestion... measure by development over time...
FOURTH NOTE OPTIMIZATION and RECOVERY
FIFTH NOTEPERFORMANCE METRICS
SIXTH NOTE Understanding LONG TERM EFFECTS
Are you a professional athlete in your 60's? write to us at email@example.com
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Synthetic Forest 2019 MMXIX All copyrights reserved.
FOURTH NOTEOPTIMIZATION and RECOVERY
|Meal||Morning 0600||Mid Morning 1045||Lunch 1330||
1Cal = 4.2Joules
1 food calorie = 1 kCal
Heat Lost x
Mass Gained x Performance Factor
Cereal + Fruit ?
Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts
Bottled Liquid Meal
|Coffee||Bottled Liquid Meal||
|Bottled Liquid Meal||2.5L||
Cereal + Fruit ?
Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts
|Bottled Liquid Meal||Tea||
Rice and Beans
|Bottled Liquid Meal||
Cereal + Fruit ?
Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts
|Bottled Liquid Meal||Coffee||
|Bottled Liquid Meal||2.5L||
|5||Cereal + Fruit ?||
|6||Cereal + Fruit ?||
|7||Cereal + Fruit ?||
|8||Cereal + Fruit ?||
|9||Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts||Salmon + Rice + Spinach||Protein + Carbohydrates + Vegetables||
Bottled Liquid Meal
Bottled Liquid Meal
Bottled Liquid Meal
Bottled Liquid Meal
FOURTH NOTE: WHAT do World Athletes Eat?: Here's what a Bodybuilder eats for ....
Arnold Schwarzenneger Workout
Michael Phelps Workout
Serena Williams Workout
Triathlon: Ironman Triathlon: 1-1.5h Swimming + 120miles in the Bike + 1.5hours at 11minute/mile..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................?
Are you interested in Training for Sport? write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org
So whithout entering the realm of Optimization for Humans.... soon... OPTIMIZATION and RECOVERY...finished?
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FOURTH NOTEPERFORMANCE METRICS: Linear Progression vs Exponential Growth: What is the natural progession of improvement: Understand the ... Exponential phase, Linear Development, and Saturation....Maximal.... Just like Saturation Kinetics.... Recall your body is made up of Proteins.
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FIFTH NOTE: Understanding the Risks of EXTENUATION, OVEREXERTION, FATIGUE, and PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Call your doctor... Rhabdomyolisis... Your body is auto destroying... When to rest and when to over rest...
Push yourself UNDER SUPERVISION.
What is Overwork .... 10 miles, 100 miles, 300 pounds... what are the risks? How many Heart Attacks can you survive?
FATIGUE: First answer the question: Have you
OVEREXERTION: CASE STUDIES
OVEREXERTION: EXERTIONAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS
HEART ATTACK TYPES
LUMBAR/THORACIC/CERVICAL: PINCHED NERVE, BULGING DISK, HERNIATED DISKS
SIXTH NOTE LONG TERM EFFECTS: MUSCLE MEMORY:
THE SYNTHETIC FOREST FOOD AND WINE REVIEW: anything you can eat withing the forest... What is not a Forest?
THE SYNTHETIC FOREST FOOD AND WINE REVIEW: anything you can eat withing the forest... What is not a Forest?
THE SYNTHETIC FOREST FOOD AND WINE REVIEW: anything you can eat withing the forest... What is not a Forest?
Obtenir les meilleurs conseils, d'informations, de la nourriture, des ustensiles de cuisine et les techniques ici au SSSFFF.
Hae paras neuvo, info, ruoka, keittiövälineet ja tekniikoita täällä SSSFFF.
SSSFFF will review any Restaurant, Dinner, Lunch Box, Cart, or a la Carte. Do you seek a review of your restaurant? Write to us at email@example.com
Read Below our Food and Wine Guide: Now, Are you Hungry, are you Thirsty? // SSSSFFFF will branch all world cooking into a single place.
These are All the Measurements you Need...
|1Cup||237 ml||2 Cups||8Oz|
Some conversions were omitted to represent simple cooking measuring utensils. For calculations we'll build another table.
|Meat Temperatures SSSSSFFFFF|
WORLD CUISINE MENU
Links / Recipes
Sashimi: Pierced Body
Smorgasbord and Julbord
Bourbon & Creole
Brisket a la BBQ: Brisket Rub Ingredients:
Rub Recipe 1:
More Rub Recipes Here: Rub Recipes
10 Tbsp unsalted butter
Jumbalaya: “holy trinity” of Cajun/Creole cooking — bell peppers, celery and onion. chicken, andouille sausage, and, shrimp, crushed tomatoes, broth, seasonings, and rice, and stir continuously. Cover and let it simmer on medium-low for 30 minutes, until the rice is cooked.
Plantillas de Maiz
Viviendo la receta guatemala
Chilean and Argentinian
Pico de Gallo
Linguini a la Pesto Sauce: garlic, 2 cups of greens (basil, parseley, romero), 1/2 cups pine nuts, olive oil, 4garlic cloves, 1/2 cup olive oil, for 1pound of linguini pasta. If you don't have pine nuts available use a bit of nutmeg.
Gnochi de Yuca.
Notes on Pasta.
Tomato Sauce @ Home
Jost Van Dke
Iles de Saintes
Postres: Arroz con Dulce
Lechon Asado: Top Secret recipe: add olive oil, salt, ground black pepper, cumin, culantro, fresh recao, and mix as a paste. The key in making a buen Lechon Asao is to tajar el lechon bien tajao. Also be sure to marinate the pernil in salt and water at least one full day. Use a regular brine concentration. Avoid any citrics or sweets in this recipe. Broil and then lower heat. The Lechon takes a long time to cook evenly, and is generally eaten above medium well, to well done. If you marinate and season the Lechon properly the meat will not end up dry. Promise!
Pasteles de Yuca: Pasteles is a broad technique of enveloping foods in a root mash mix. In mexico a corn paste is used to make tamales. In the caribbean platanos, yucca, name, yautia, and batata , the common roots are blended in different proportions and stuffed with any meat. Many variations add acid olives, peppers, sweet raisins, or chickpeas. The key to the pasteles artistry is the enveloping and wrap-tying in platano leaves. Pasteles are tied in pairs called yuntas and take 30-40 minutes to boil in high. PLEASE DON'T ADD KETCHUP. It is a common disagreement between pasteles lovers to include the ketchup. I know you'll agree in the purest form of this great dish.
Cortes de Carne Caribenhos: Pernil, Churrasco, Chuletas.
Fricase de Conejo
El Mofongo Perfecto: Has probado dos mofongos perfectos? Altamente probable que se hallan hecho con detalles diferentes. Mantequilla vs Aceite de oliva, Frito vs Hervido, Con ajo o con chicharron... hay variedad en el mofongo al igual que en el platano. Proximo: como hacer el mofongo perfecto....
Que es verdaderamente caribenho sin una SALSA:
Aqui comenzamos a experimentar con bases de salsa. La primera: Salsa dulce-picante de Mango:
4 ajos, 1/2 cebolla, 1/4 barra de mantequilla, 2cdas de limon, 1/2 cda de rayadura de limon, 2cdas de cilantrillo. Mezclar bien en una licuadora. Puedes anadir para variar trozos de gengibre o licuar con vino blanco. Decora con rayadura de limon, cayenne o zanahorias. Sirve a mas de 6 personas. Usala como dip, marinado, o salsa base. Que la disfrutes.
Sustituir Salsa de Tomate por Pasta de Tomate?
Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa
India is extremely large and its cuisine is a broad spectrum from vegetarian to coastal with English , Muslim, Portuguese and Endemic Influences. SSFF will name a couple of spices and dishes you should at least try many times.
Ingredients: saffron, pured nuts, coconut, curry, Naan bread, nargisi kaftas (meatballs), biryani ( layered rice and meat), rogan josh...Dosa (rice pancakes), Idli (steamed rice cakes), Many different types of Chutney (chutney is an Indian version of sofrito/sauce in latin countries. sort of a base flavor composed of many spices).
Plates and Recipes:
dry-cooked Kebab (Tandoori Jhinga, Chicken Tandoori, Shami Kebab, Seekh Kebab, Paneer Tikka, Tandoori Aloo, Murgh Malai Kebab)
Dal Bukhara (creamy black bean soup)
deep-fried foods (Samosa, Pakora)
Papad (a round toasted paste made of dried-beans and spices)
Gajar Halwa (Carrot Cake) and Kheer (Rice pudding).
|Vegan and Vegetarian||
1.5 cups of rice, 2 tsp turmeric, 2 garlic cloves, 1/2 yellow onion, 2 inches of ginger, 2 cups of vegetable broth per cup of rice, 2 tbsp of oil. 5 inches of carrot natural antiseptic and antibacterial agent anti-inflammatory, anti arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis detoxifies the liver; shown to be affective in fighting Alzheimer’s ; natural painkiller
- may help in weight management; used to treat depression; used to treat multiple cancers
- antioxidant; can be used as a Saffron substitute
Arroz Verde: Many latin countries have this recipe involving the green spices of tropical caribbean cuisine. Green color is brought about cilantro, perejil, romero, oregano, and spinach. This rice's green hue can be from light to very heavy green. Here's a recipe:
per 3 cups of rice, use two handfuls of cilantro and two other of perejil, add a tablespoon or two of romero (slight green and bitter hint) add 3 garlic heads and half an onion into a blender. Boil rice as you would but substitute water for broth. Add 3 tablespoons of olive oil in the blender and blend until a watery paste results. Add the paste to the rice when cooking and be sure to mix as the greens float. In the end it would be necessary to mix the green layer up top. SSFF takes more than 40 minutes to set the rice. The longer you let the rice set at low heat the looser the grain will be. Serves 8-15 persons. Enjoy.
Ball Park Food
Take 8 pounds of carne molida. 2 cans of beer. Put in a bowl and cover the entire surface of the bowl with a salt pepper mix, visibly cover. Add the beer and mix with your hands. Add 1/2 an onion per pound of meat OR add onion until the meat mix is visibly constituted with onion. Take a full ramo de cilantrillo and cut in small pieces, not too small. You can leave the cilantrillo in leave sized size. Mix by hand. Marinate in the beer for 1 full day. During this time the meat will absorb all the juice you add to it. So if you would like add another beer or until you start seeing meat to separate in its consistency. Before cooking, remove all juice. Add 2 eggs to the meat and mix by hand. Then enjoy the best burguers you'll ever enjoy.Alter the recipe by adding 1 tbs of red pepper per pound. Also add more culantro, peppers, recao, even spinach, romero and lemongrass to taste, to make a green burguer. Serve with two couple of cups red wine and a glass of water.
Aragonese and Navarra
Bacalao... recuerda desalinarlo mediante remoje en agua o hirviendo en agua. Guarda un poco del agua para la salsa.
Paella: Valenciana, de Carne, de Mariscos...
Pastas may have been communicated through cultural trips from earlier than 13th century Chinese to the Italians to the World. Below are several simple recipes to enjoy your pasta: http://www.internationalpasta.org/
French Onion Pasta: Medium Shells, 300ml french Onion Consome, 1 cup of diced peppers, 4 garlic heads, 3 leaves of oregano brujo, 1/2 onion or 3 small shallots,
800g tomatoes or ripe fresh fruit
Boil tomatoes for a minute, until the skins split. Peel skin, then chop.
Heat the oil in a medium saucepan on a medium-low heat and add the chopped onion. Soften onions until translucent. Stir in the garlic and cook for another two minutes.
Tip in the tomatoes, and break up with a wooden spoon if necessary, then add the sugar, vinegar and the STEMS of the basil, reserving the leaves. Season.
Bring to a simmer, then turn down the heat and simmer for 45 minutes, stirring occasionally, until thick. Test the seasoning, add the basil leaves, roughly torn, and drizzle in a little extra-virgin olive oil if you like before serving.
To go: Panini, Baguette
French Onion Soup: 1/2 cup unsalted butter, 4 sliced onions, 4 garlic cloves, 4 bay leaves, fresh chopped oregano, salt and pepper to taste, 1 cup of red wine, 3-4 tablespoons of flour, 2 quarts of beef broth, Gruyere optional.
|Greek||Greek||Olive Oil, Citrics, Harina||
Lemon Basil Shrimp and Pasta
Baklava, Menemen, Kuzu Tandır, Pide
Ayran, Raki , Salep,
Tavuk (Chicken Breast Dessert!), Lamacun
|Islamic and Arab||
Sesame, Azafran, Curcuma, Garlic, Curry
Cinamon, Pickels, Onion, Citrics
Hummus: [16oz of garbanzos, 1.5 tablespoons tahini, 3-5 tablespoons of lemon juice (1-2 lemons), 1/2 tablespoons salt, 2 tablespoons olive oil, 1-2 tablespoons chipped cilantrillo. 2 garlic heads, 1/4 cup of water or garbanzo liquid.] Blend all ingredients until texture is heavy creamy. Dress with chili pepper and olive oil, cilantro and chopped onions, sparkle with lemon juice to taste.
are you in the African Continent? Write to us @ firstname.lastname@example.org
We would like to learn ways to make African dishes.
Russian Salad (Olivier)
Borscht (Beet and Cabbage Soup)
Pirozkhi (hot pocket)
|SSSFFF is looking for an intro into Scandinavian food. Write to US!|
|DRINKS WINES SPIRITS DISTILLATES WITHIN THE SSSSSSFFFFFF|
Write to us to understand the current trends in Chinese Cuisine @ email@example.com
What are Chinese Flavors, Spices?
SSSFFF is looking into Reviewing Microbrews from all over!
Salsa Mole negro, rojo, poblano
FERNET & COLA(ARGENTINA)
Rum, Rum, Rum, RUM
New: Caribbean Craft Beers
Pina Colada: 2part Bacardi, 1part Coconut Cream, 3parts Pineaple juice.1 cup of ice per 6 oz of mix. The viscosity of the mix can be lowered with added ice. Texture and feel can be changed with ice quantity. Most people enjoy Pina Colada between a frozen and a daiquiri, in that sweet middle spot. Normally the Coconut Cream comes in a 1.75 cup can. So use 6 oz of Pineaple juice. Add the Bacardi for flavor. 2oz
Indian Vodka, Indian Whiskey,
Sura, Meraya, Majja
Ball Park Food
Where's the best Ballpark Beer?
Where are the best streets to hang out out after a game?
Special Drinking Events
Get a sausage, put it in the oven with 1/2 a tsp of oil and peppers. Wait till the sausage sizzles... take out. put in a bun and indulge.
|North to South||
White Sangria Recipe
White Sangria is just that - sangria made with white wine instead of red wine. It is a style of sangria with a ton of flavor and a much cleaner palette than the red version.
Tinto de Verano Recipe
Tinto de verano translates to "red wine of summer". This drink is served throughout Spain during the long, hot summers. While it is similar to sangria, it has less alcohol; this makes it a much better drink to sip while sitting in the sun.
|Mediterranean||Vin du Region|
Diples + Loukomades
· 10 sweet mangoes
· 1kg sugar
· 1l liter of water
· 2 packets of vanilla sugar
· 1 tsp of cinnamon powder
Cut the skin of mango, cut into small pieces and crush them in a food processor.In a saucepan, add water, sugar and the mango puree. Stir and simmer over low heat, stirring occasionally for 30 minutes.
Then reduce the heat to low and let it simmer until the cooking water evaporates completely (45min). Then add the vanilla sugar or cinnamon.
Let it cool down completely and put in glass jars and refrigerate for your daily use to breakfast or spread your cakes, pancakes, etc.
Sage / Salvia
Cinnamon / Canela
Basil / Albahaca
Capers / Alcaparra
Allspice / Pimienta Gorda
Anise / Anís
Bay Leaves / Laurel
Chamomile / Manzanilla
Caraway / Alcaravea
Chives / Cebolleta
Chervil / Cerafolio
Peppermint / Menta
Ginger / Jengibre
Cardamom / Cardamomo
Comfrey / Confrey
Fleur de Sel
SPICE MIX TREND 1: Olive Oil + Garlic + Black Pepper + Onion + Oregano. Substitute Salvia for Oregano....
SPICE MIX TREND 2: Ginger + Olive Oil
SPICE MIX TREND 3
SPICE MIX TREND 4
SPICE MIX TREND 99: Write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org
SPICE TIP: SUGAR SENSORS sugar sensors in our mouths detect glucose The intestinal glucose sensor, located in our sweet-sensitive taste cells, is triggered by sodium, which alerts the cell to register sweetness. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21450125
SPICE TIP: HUMIDITY: Increase in Humidity means the salt may contain higher concentrations of Magnesium, Calcium, Nutrients. Fleur de sel.
SPICE TIP: BOIL and STRAIN: Flaking for Fleur de Sel
|Food and Drink Recipes|
|SOUP||Onion Soup||Take olive oil, butter, and heat until mixed. Cut 6 sweet onions and 4 garlic heads into Julienne cut and place in pot. Add salt and pepper, cook until onions are turn transparent. Add 3 tbsp of wheat flour to make a roux. Add 2 Liters of beef broth (substitute a cup of broth with white wine) to pot and top with rosemary, oregano, cebollines, any of your choice of herbals. Cook 25-30 minutes covered at low heat. Taste onions to ensure they are well cooked. Grouyere optional. Serve with wheat toasts.|
|KNOCKOUT DRINKS||KNOCKOUT DRINKS||
Absinthe (45%- 72% Alcohol)
Bacardi 151 (75.5% Alcohol)
Devil Springs Vodka (80% Alcohol)
Pincer Vodka (88.8% Alcohol)
Bruichladdich X4+1 Quadrupled whisky (92% Alcohol)
Everclear (75% Alcohol)
Spirytus Rektyfikowany (96% Alcohol)
Alien Brain Hemorrhage
If you think the idea of severe brain injury sounds like a good way to start the weekend, then you’ll love the Alien Brain Hemorrhage! It’s even worse than a regular, old, human brain hemorrhage, because it’s from space! And we know, because of science.
1 oz. Peach Schnapps
Pour the peach schnapps into a shot glass. Layer the Irish cream on top. Finally, add the drops of grenadine to the center of the drink, until it passes through the cream. Voila!
1 ounce coconut syrup
Blend all ingredients except strawberry puree. Pour into a cocktail glass and garnish with strawberry puree.
The American Flag
1/2 oz. Grenadine
In layers, pour the grenadine then the crème de cacao and finally the blue curacao into a cordial glass.
The Jellyfish looks like a stinger of a shot! Fear not, dear reader. The Jellyfish goes down like, well, jelly! But without the fish. That’s good news! And it’s quite a looker! The blend of electric red and white is something to be admired. Slam one down!
1/2 oz. Crème de Cacao (White)
Pour in layers the white Crème de Cacao then the amaretto and finally the Irish cream in a shot glass. Add 3 drops of grenadine in the center of the shot.
Khalua, Frangelico, Baileys... almost an Orgasm...
1/2 oz. Coffee Liqueur
Pour in layers: #1 Coffee liqueur #2Hazelnut liqueur #3 Irish cream.
SAKE: Como hacer SAKE
Notes on Fermentation
Beer, Brewing Carbonation, Maturation, Sinking and Topping, Top vs Bottom vs Cold vs Hot Fermentation
Top Bacteria Strains. soon @ SSSFFF
|BUYING ALCOHOL||BUYING ALCOHOL||https://www.abarabove.com/podcast/mtp-69-mastering-buying/|
|PASTA||PASTA||PASTA SHAPES, PASTA TECHNIQUES PASTA DIES, PASTA SHAPES|
Bowtie pasta exists solely to escape from whatever eating utensil you are using, plop down on a plate, and throw a single red dot of sauce onto your otherwise clean shirt.
Because bowtie pasta is a f*** turbo d+++ of the highest magnitude. You can't even stab it to death because it will just slide all over the place such like a William Nilly and in the end you will scoop it up in the manner of our cave-ridden ancestors and glomp it down angrily before you realize everyone is staring at you and your labored breathing, rage boiling beneath your surface
like so many bowties. accessed on 10/12/2015 http://groupthink.kinja.com/inane-debate-pasta-shapes-1645732025
Do you have any good tips in making the Pizza Dough? Write to Us.
|Fetuccini Alfredo||Melt butter in a medium, non-stick saucepan over medium heat. Add cream cheese and garlic powder, stirring with wire whisk until smooth. Add milk, a little at a time, whisking to smooth out lumps. Stir in Parmesan and pepper.|
Falda o Pecho de Res
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.
|SSSFFF Shrimp||SSSFFF Shrimp||Shrimp a la SSSFFF: 1 bar of butter, 1 bag of shrimp (aprox 30-40), 2 onions finely superchopped, a half head of garlic finely shopped.; add butter on high heat, add onions first, wait 2 minutes, add shrimps, wait 3 minutes add garlic, wait 0 minutes, add a spoon of wheat powder to specify-espesar la salsa, reduce sauce until visibly thick... mystery ingredient, Alcohol, add wine or heavy rum, 3 tablespoons, finally add any green spices, can be any of your choice fresh. Serves 4-6 over pastas, white rice, layered potatoes, inside a fritter or as tapas. Mixes with Lager beer, Dry white wines, Lemonade (second mistery ingredient: cut the yellow lemon/lime crust, and add while sauce is reducing, this will aid in reducing the butter). Shrimp a la SSSSSFFFFF... Let us know! Send us a pic of your version of this simple recipe. Write to us at email@example.com, Hub of Science Culture and Technology.|
* Shell on? or Shell off? It's really up to you. Shrimp cooked shell on are more flavorful because the shells infuse more flavor into the shrimp while they cook. But, shell-on is fussier to eat. If you remove the shells before cooking the shrimp, you can save them for making shellfish stock. http://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/shrimp_scampi/
Heat a sauté pan on high heat then reduce to medium high heat. Swirl the butter and olive oil into the pan. After the butter melts it will foam up a bit then subside. If using unsalted butter, sprinkle a little salt in the pan. Stir in the slivered garlic and red pepper flakes.
Sauté the garlic for just a minute, until it begins to brown at the edges, then add the shrimp. Add the wine and stir to coat the shrimp with the sauce of butter, oil, and wine. Move the shrimp so they are in an even layer in the pan. Increase the heat to high and boil the wine for two to three minutes.
Stir the shrimp and arrange them so that you turn them over to cook on the other side. Continue to cook on high heat for another minute.
Remove the pan from the heat. Sprinkle the shrimp with parsley, lemon juice, and black pepper, and toss to combine.
Serve as is, or with crusty bread, over pasta, or over rice (for gluten-free version).
SSSSFFFF has some serious Salmon Recipes
MARINATING SALMON TIPS
Soy Sauce Marinade:
Pulpo y Calamares. What are the best ways to cook Pulpo?
Grilled Octopus with Ancho Chile Sauce
PREPARE THE OCTOPUS Preheat the oven to 300°. In a large enameled cast-iron casserole, heat the olive oil. Add half of the octopus and cook over moderately high heat, turning, until lightly browned all over, 3 to 5 minutes. Transfer to a plate. Repeat with the remaining octopus.
Add the shallots and garlic to the casserole and cook over moderate heat, stirring, until lightly browned, about 2 minutes. Add the pimentón and cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 20 seconds. Carefully add the sherry and bring to a boil. Return the octopus to the casserole, cover and braise in the oven until very tender, about 1 hour and 30 minutes. Let the octopus cool completely in the liquid.
MEANWHILE, MAKE THE SAUCE In a medium saucepan, toast the chiles over moderate heat, turning, until fragrant and pliable, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the vinegar, honey and garlic and bring just to a simmer. Remove from the heat and let stand until the chiles are softened, about 20 minutes. Transfer to a blender and puree until smooth. With the machine on, gradually add the grapeseed oil until incorporated. Season the ancho chile sauce with salt.
Light a grill or preheat a grill pan and brush with canola oil. Grill the octopus over high heat, turning, until lightly charred all over, about 4 minutes. Transfer to a baking sheet and immediately brush with some of the ancho chile sauce. Serve with the jicama salad, passing the remaining sauce at the table.
1 libra de almejas o un poco más (25 almejas aproximadamente.)
3oz. de chorizo
½ taza de vino seco blanco
2 cucharadas de aceite de oliva
1 cebolla blanca
6 dientes de ajo
2 cds cilantrillo
Sazon de sal y pimienta.
Temperatura mediana alta sofria en orden de espesor: cebolla, ajo. Cocer cebolla y ajo a gusto. El orden de sofreir es importante ya que la variabilidad del sabor entre ajo y cebolla y otros vegetales es grande ya que el calor y el aceite liberan mucho el sabor o si se sofrie poco se puede obtener un sabor mas natural del ingrediente. Tradicionalmente el ajo se sofrie hasta rostizar y lograr la carbonizacion del ajo que le anade caracter al sabor. Añade el chorizo y mueve todos los ingredientes para que la sazón del chorizo se incorpore bien. Sofríe por unos 5 minutos más. Por último agrega el vino y mezcla mientras esperas unos minutos hasta que el olor fuerte a alcohol pase (Reduccion ~2 minutos). Aqui puedes espesar la salsa con una cda de mantequilla. Echa las almejas y revuelvelas 1 vez y las tapas por varios minutos hasta que empiecen a abrir. Luego agrega el cilantro, sal y pimienta y muévelas de nuevo. Decorar.
Carrucho al escabeche: http://www.chefmilani.com/ensaladacarrucho.html#.Vf0KvflViko
1lb de carrucho hervido(45mints)cortado en
|Hamburguers||100 hamburger recipes, soon! SSSFFF, hungry?|
|Stuffed Mushroom Burguer|
|Oak Burn Chili Burguer|
|Bacon, and Egg Hamburguer|
|Double Burguer with Onion Rings|
Anything you can fit between a bun is considered a topping.
Eggs, Jalapeno, Onions, Peppers, Mustard, Sesame Seeds, Lettuce, then experiment with sweet and salty mix, add peanut butter or jelly and give your burger a bright cool twist.
|White Rice||Perfect White Rice: 1cup of water per cup of rice. It doesn't matter if the rice is long grain or short. The important detail is that water is covering the level of rice. Bring water to a vigorous boil, add salt 2tbs or to taste. Add the rice and let boil. Watch the rice water level. When the water level starts to disappear and you see pores in the rice (convection pores), immediately lower the heat and cover. THE TRICK IS IN LEAVING THE RICE STILL FOR AS LONG AS YOU CAN WITHHOLD EATING. The longer you cook the rice Lo mas suelto lo ecuentras. Que lo disfrutes.|
Arroz al Curry
Arroz con Almendras
Arroz al Coco
Arroz con Limon y Cilantro
There are many different ways to make rice. Guisado or sauted, with Coconut or Curry, Green rice with cilantro, sage, or thyme or any other green spice. The trick with these recipes is to make the sauce or add the ingredient in the key moment.
Arroz Guisado: Create the sauce and then add rice.
Arroz con Almendras: Crunch the Almonds and add before simmering.
Arroz con Coco: Add the coconut milk at the end of the simmering time, mix by hand and let simmer for more time.
Arron con Limon: the Lemon can be added before simmering or during the simmering. The longer the lemon stands with rice the more acid the lemon flavor will be. You can add the lemon in the end of the simmering time and cover the pan to simply aromatize the rice. Otherwise lemon flavor will sink in the rice and give it a straight acidic cut.
Cebolla, Ajo, Pimientos, Cilantrillo y Recao, Salsa de Tomate y Caldo de Pollo, Zanahorias o Papas... en menos de 30 minutos... ahhh y un splash de vino blanco a lo ultimo. enjoy.
Hey would you like to sponsor this part of the Review? let us know at firstname.lastname@example.org
|Lechon Asado||Salt, Pepper, Oregano, Culantro, Achiote, Olive Oil, Lemon juice, Laurel Leaves... at 450 for a loooong time. Write to us if you want the inner details in making a good one.|
Sabes cortar un Pollo? Te orientamos rapido. Haz una incision entre el muslo estirado y la pechuga de pollo. esta incision es para separar el muslo del la cadera.. Hazla en ambos lados. El pollo no debe punzarce antes de cocinar. Cocina el pollo y cuando este cocido sacalo del horno. Corta por el mismo corte anterior hasta separar el ala y muslo de la cadera. Toma el pollo por el roto del centro y estiralo lo mas que puedas. Te daras cuenta que si cortas transversalmente en ese plano podras separar las dos pechugas de los muslos y las caderas. (debo incluir fotos). Terminaras con "el pecho" en un lado y las caderas en el otro. Para picar las pechugas ten un cuchillo bien afilado y corta hasta el hueso por el mismo centro. (aqui me detengo para una aclaracion... es como todo animal, tiene hueso en el pecho protejiendo los organos. Hago la aclaracion porque, confesamos, hemos comido miles de pechugas sin saber como se obtienen). No debe ser sorpresa, ahora, picar la pechuga. Aunque quede asimetrica se podra comer.
Comparte tus tecnicas de picar el pollo con nosotros. Escribenos a email@example.com
Si, Sr., hay que freir el platano dos veces. Majarlo y luego cubrir con ajo...
hay miles de recetas... hacer mofongo es un Arte! comparte tus recetas de hacer mofongo en: firstname.lastname@example.org
|ARABIC||ARAB PAN ARAB MEDITERRANEAN AND AFRICAN ARAB|
2 latas de Hummus. Tahini, limon, cilantrillo, pimienta cayenne, aceite de oliva: mezclas todo y ya'. Sirve con un toque de limon. Proporciona a gusto. Es asi de facil. Hummus dura no mas de 3 a 4 dias en la nevera.
SSFF is interested in finding alternative recipes of Hummus. Please write to us at email@example.com
|Kabab||Lamb, Chicken, Veal, Pork, Beef...|
A section Completely dedicated to the exploration of Tea flavors and Health Benefits.
Rosemary Tea : http://www.bodyenlightenment.me/blog/2011/05/remarkable-rosemary-the-benefits-of-herbs-extracts-and-teas/
While there are infinite ways of making Sangria, there are certainly only a good number of ways of making it.
We'll give you some basic tips to make the best sangria for most paladar tastes. Not extremely sweet, and enticingly intoxicating punch.
|SSSFFF||Wines, Juices, Soda Water, Rum, Vodka, Tequila, Lemon, Lots of Ice, Lots of Shaking, lots of sangria.|
|Long Island||LIIT: Vodka + Tequila + Rum + Gin + Triple Sec + Lemon Juice + Carbonated : Shake WELL|
|Green Sangria||Based on green alcohol and green spices, Yerba buena, Mint, Peppers, Sage...|
|Ginger Sangria||Either make Ginger juice or let ginger cuts stand in the refrigerator for at least 10 hours...|
|White Sangria||White wine, white rum, clear colors, lots of ice...|
|Rosemary Sangria||Heat water and rosemary until boiling, then simmer for 5 minutes. Cool then strain out the rosemary. Mix with pineapple juice and ginger ale right before serving.|
|COBBLERS||Baked shoemaker who illegally fakes documents, and drinks a cobbler.|
|Sherry Cobbler||First of all know the Types of Sherry before ordering this drink: Amontillado, Fino, Oloroso. 3.5oz of Sherry, 1 tbsp Sugar, 3 Orange Slices. Mix Orange + Sugar + Sherry + Crushed Ice and Shake. Garnish with mint and straw. Varieties of Clobbler with Lemon, Cranberries, Raspberries. Drink it here at the SSSFFF.|
|DRINKS||DRINKS DRINKS DRINKS DRINKS DRINKS DRIKS DRINKS and Don't Drive, need a cab? firstname.lastname@example.org|
Cooctail Garnish lemon cattot cwlery manzanilla olivas
Vodka, Tomato Juice, Worcestershire saue, Tabasco, Piri Piri sauce, beef consomme , boulloion horseradish , celery olives salt black cayenne pepper lomon joice and celery salt …. most complex cock tail. Vladimir
|Cosmopolitan||Fresh Vodka||1.5 Vodka, 0.5 Cointreau, 1.0 Cranberry juice, 0.25 Lime Juice, Dress with Zest. Shake thoroughly, strain ice, serve cold.|
|Mojito/Julep||Fresh Citric||6oz Rum, 4tbsp Sugar, 6 tbsp Fresh Lime Juice, 15 Mint Leaves, Club Soda. Mix all ingredients with ice, serve in a tall rounded glass, top with club Soda. Mystery ingredients: (a hot spice). Julep substitutes Rum with Bourbon.|
|Black Russian||Vodka||Vodka + Coffee Liquor|
|Cuba Libre||Rum||Rum + Coke (sponsors?)|
|Glow Drink 1||Glow in the Dark||Pea Flower Tea + Rum Coconut + Blue Curacao|
|Glow Drink 2||Glow in the Dark||Gin/Vodka + Tonic + Sweet Mix|
|Glow Drink 3||Glow in the Dark||Blue Food Coloring + Energy Drink + Vitamin B + Rum/Whiskey/Vodka|
|Glow Drinks||Glow in the Dark||Chlorophyll + Guanine + Absinthe + Tonic Water + Club Soda + Food Coloring....|
|WHISKY||40-90% alcohol Fermented Grain Mash Aged in Oak (Roble)|
|Bourbon||Corn Mash >50% corn, Distilled at 160proof and aged at 125.|
Rye (centeno, familia del trigo y cebada) (pumpernickel, knackebrod) (LSD) (Albert Hofman)(alcaloids)(vodka)
Jim Bean, Knob Creek Rye (Unsponsored)
|Irish||From Ireland... we'll wait to go to Ireland to characterize this alcohol.|
|Kiwi RUM||RUM Drink||
SSSFFF ELEMENTS FOR A BAR
2 oz Prosecco, 1 1/4 oz Aperol, Splash of Soda water
|Tia Maria||Coffee Liquor|
|Cafe Granita||Coffee Liquor|
Categories: Please see below (from: http://www.dailyinfographic.com/the-different-types-of-wine-infographic):
We are in the Works of Creating your Chemistry Home at SSFF .
Do you need Chemical Analysis or Chemistry Related Technologies? Write us with your questions at SSSSFFFF.
синтетической химии лес домой
floresta sintético química casa
synthetische chemie wald zu hause
|What is an Atom?||
Does anybody know? Has anybody seen an atom?
How big is it? How do we know? Is there Similitude between Atoms and Galaxies?
Are there more Atoms in the Periodic Table that we do not know of?
Where did you see your first atom?
Is the atom a particle? Is it a wave? Is a Photon an atom?
|Electronic Structure, VSEPR||
n: principal quantum number: 1,2,3,4
l: 0s, 1p, 2d, 3f orbital. S: 0, P: -1,0,+1
m: for p subshell (-1, 0, 1)...
s: spin: angular momentum
s p d f
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5
6 6 6
|Effective nuclear charge||
#protons - nonvalence electrons.
Higher nuclear charge = smaller atomic radius.
The Periodicity of Elemental Structure:
Electron Affinity vs Electronegativity vs Ionization Energy
The Periodic table is not a square table ;
Atomic Radius increases down a column and to the left in a period.
Ionization Energy increases to the right in a period and up in a column. Helium has highest ionization energy.
Electron Affinity: Increases to the right in a period and up in a column. Generally it increases up in a column, ex Cl vs F
Electronegativity: Increases up a column and to the right. FOClNlBrISCH:decreasing order of electronegativity
Electron Affinity follows trend of Electronegativity, generally increasing as a more stable structure is formed when an electron is gained. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom. Electronegativity with respect to an atom in a molecule.
Lattice energy is the energy released when a crystal is formed from its constituting ions. e.g. Na+ Cl- -> NaCl(s). The ionic bond is stronger as the charges between atoms is larger. Al(OH)3 is insoluble in water because of large lattice energy
Acidity increases to the right in a period and down a column. Is related to the stability of the anion. As the size of the anion is increased charge can become delocalized easier.
Cl has higher electron affinity but lower Electronegativity than F because of electron pair repulsion in the valence shell.
Transition metal: When d-block elements form ions, the 4s electrons are lost first.
Vanadium has a higher melting point than Cr. Generally melting point is increased to the right within a period because of london/induced dipole forces.
V:[Ar] 4s2 3d3; V3+[Ar] 3d2
Cr has a half filled d level [Ar] 4s1 3d5
Cu: [Ar] 4s1 3d10
Au: has only one valence electron:
Ag: [Kr] 5s1 4d10
21Scandium and 22Titanium:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 ,
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2
Charge, Ionic and Polyatomic Ions, Ionic Strength; Hydrogen Bond, Electronegativity, NH4+, PO4-3, SO4-2, ate-ite
|Covalent Bonding||Hybridization, Geometries sp3, sp2, sp||Carbocation has sp2, trigonal planar geometry|
|Hydrogen Bonding: Dipole Moments||
FON: A hydrogen bonded to a electronegative halogen can Hydrogen bond with another electronegative halogen. This can occur intramolecularly within short distances, around 1 C-C length.
Acid and Bases: Reduction Oxidation Reactions:
Lewis Acid, Bronsted Acid, Lewis Base, Bronsted Base,
Buffer, K, pK, Strong vs Weak Acids, Titration, Hydrolysis,
Electrolytic Cell, Anode Cathode, Galvanic vs Electrolytic Cell, Reduction Potential.
Arrhenius Acids yield H+.
If a substance accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond it is condsidered a Lewis Acid.
Reducing Agents: Reductor: Reducer: looses electrons: LiAlH4, H2.
Metals act as electron donors giving off ions in solution.Then it is said that the metal has been oxidized. Fe(s)-> Fe++ + 2e-. Substances that are oxidized act as REDUCING AGENTS.
Reducing Agents are oxidized. Oxidizing Agents are Reduced.
Oxidant = Oxidizing Agent = Oxidizer
Reductant = Reducing Agent = Reducer. Reducers gain Electrons given by the Reducing Agent that has been Oxidized (donating electrons).
LiAlH4 + 4 H2O → LiOH + Al(OH)3 + 4 H2
CARDIO Base: Charge-Atomis size-Resonance-Dipole Induction-Orbital: more negatively charged species are more basic, larger atoms with negative charges are more stable weaker bases, more resonance more stability, sp3 more basic than sp2...
NADP+ + 2H2O -> 2NADPH + 2H+ +CO2
NADP+ accepts electrons from water. This is a reduction. NADPH is the reducing agent.
NADH IS NOT NADPH.
Acidity and Melting Point are not related.
Larger atoms are more acid because can form more stable anions.
Oxidation: Gain of O, Loss of e-, Loss of H+
Arrenius Acids : Donate H+
Arrhenius Base: Accepts H+
Compounds ionize in solution (water only).
Lewis Acid accepts e- pair: Electrophile: Trigonal Planar BR3 with empty p orbital. H+ is a LA.
H+ + NH3 → NH4+ . Carbonium is electrophilic thereby a strong LA.
Strong Lewis acids are electron deficient. Strong Lewis Bases are electron rich.
Lewis Acid Base Pair
Lewis Base donates NONBONDING e- pair: H-, F-; are NUCLEOPHILES
Basic Amino Acids: Lys, Arg, His.
Conjugates of Strong Acid/Base have no effect on pH:
|Bronsted Lowry||Acids increase H3O+, Bases Increase -OH|
|Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs||
To find the conjugate base of an acid, take off a H+
HCl is a strong acid. Cl-, its conjugate base has no effect on pH. Acids dissociate completely. The more stable is the anion the more acid is the molecule.
NH4Cl: NH4+ is the conjugate acid of weak base NH3
Weak base NH3, conjugate acid NH4+ strong acid.
acid + base = conjugate acid + conjugate base
Strong Acids: HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, HClO4, HBr, HI
other scales beside pH are used to measure SSA.
Corrosiveness NOT EQUAL to Strength = HF
|Ka vs pKa||
COOH has a pKa of 4 - 5
The lower the pKa the higher the Ka. Low pKa are acidic. High pKa are basic.
When pKa and Ka are equal the compound is in equilibrium and the slope of titration curve is linear.
From Nerst to Current Trends
kQq/r vs F =k(q1q2)/r^2
ΔU = ΔH - p ΔV
Gauss Law: I = EAcos(-)
F = qvB sin(-)
F = qE
Coulomb's law k = 9E9 Nm^2/C^2
Electric field lines move out of the positive charge and into negative charges.
A dipole aligns so that the positive lines are "into the negative and out of the positive". The positive end of the dipole will be aligned with the electric field lines.
Charge moving in a circle: F = qvB = mv^2/r ; if qvB> mv^2/r the charge is spiralling in. if qvB<mv^2/r the charge is curving.
Current Carrying wires:
F = qvB sinθ = (it)vB sinθ = (it)(L/t)B sinθ = iLB sinθ
A negative Force means that charges are attracting.
CURRENT TRENDS: Conventional Current Flow is Opposite to Electron Current Flow. Arbitrarily the current flows out of the short battery symbol into the circuit.
The Current in a Parallel Circuit is Split at Ramifications like water flow.
The current in a Series Circuit is Steady. What drops is the voltage (like water pressure), as a loss to Impedance.
|Resistors in series have the SAME current.|
E(cell) > 0, the reaction is spontaneous and happens in a galvanic cell.
E(cell) = E(oxidation) + E(reduction)
|Galvanic = Voltaic Cell||
Two pure metals connected by a salt bridge.
Oxidized species + e- = Reduced Species
Metal cations induce reduction of metals in other cell. So the more positive Oxidation Potential Metal gives off electrons from the Anode to the other metal Cathode . Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu . In a galvanic cell of Zn and Cu electrodes. The Zinc electrodes looses mass as electrons go to Cu2+ and Zn++ goes into solution.
|Ionization Energy increases to the left and down a column. +|
|Difference b/w Electrolytic and Galvanic Cell|
|Capacitor||U = (1/2)CV^2|
|Laws||Ideal Gas, Boyle, Charles, Avogadros: Henry, Raoult, Arrhenius, Hess, Zeroth, First Law, Second Law, Rate Law, Le Chatelier, Faraday, Newton's First, Newton's Second Law, Dalton's Law|
Kinetic Theory of Gases
k = R/Na
Partial Pressure, Mole Fraction
STP: 0C, 1atm
Boyles law: PV = k: inverse proportionality P1V1 = P2V2
Charles law: V/T = k: direct proportionality: V1/T1 = V2/T2
Avogradro's Law: V1/N1 = V2/N2
Dalton's Law: p = xP also vi = V * pi/P
Henry's law pi = k ci: pi is the partial pressure of the solute.
"At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid."
Raoult's law: p = p* x; p* is the vapor pressure of pure component.
Raoult vs Henry: Henry is more related to solute, Raoult to solvent: When the solvent is in a great quantity the constant of proportionaliy is the partial pressure of the solvent.
|Real Gas Law, Van der Waaaals|
|PRESSURE AND MASS EFFECTS||
Molarity: kg / L
Molality: mol / L
Normality: meq / L
Molar Volume at 0C and 1atm = 22.4L/mol
f = Av
|Mass Effects Return Home||Surface Tension|
Solubility vs T, P.
Osmotic Pressure: Solvent moves across a semipermeable barrier from high concentration to low concentration. The pressure difference across the chambers is the osmotic pressure.
Chaotropic agents: increases solubility of non polar. (Alcohol, Urea, Lithium acetate). Denature proteins by increasing hydrophobic solubility.
Kosmotripic increase water-water interactions. Stabilizes intermolecular protein interactions thereby preventing aggregation. (Mg2+, Li+1, Zn2+), mostly small positive ions). Ammonium sulfate.
Mechanical Properties of Liquids
All 1A metal salts are water soluble
All NH4+ salts are water soluble
All NO3--, ChH3O2-, ClO4- , are water soluble. KNO3
SO4 -2 sulfate
PO4 --- phophate
Complex Ion formation, solubility
Common Ion effect
Silver salts are insoluble in water with the exception of silver nitrate, silver acetate and silver sulfate.
Chlorides Bromides Iodides, are soluble with the exception of AgCl2, PBCl2, HgCl2
Base Solubility: Ca(OH)2 is soluble.
Group 1 and NH4+ salts are soluble
Group 2 MgO, metal oxides Insoluble.
Sparingly soluble salts derived from weak acids tend to be more soluble in an acidic solution.
Which of the following insoluble salts—AgCl, Ag2CO3, Ag3PO4, and/or AgBr—will be substantially more soluble in 1.0 M HNO3 than in pure water?
Answer: Ag2CO3 and Ag3PO4
Good Reference: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Wikitexts/UC_Davis/UCD_Chem_2B/UCD_Chem_2B%3A_Larsen/Unit_IV%3A_Chemical_Equilibria/Chapter_17/17.4_Solubility_and_pH
|Buffers||Tritration Curve effect|
Ksp describes saturated solutions.
BaC O 3(s) ---- Ba 2+(aq )+C O 2− 3(aq )
Ksp= [Ba2+][CO32-] = 5.1 x 10-9
Conduction, Convection Radiation, Work, Rankine Scale, Absolute Scale, Conservation, Decay, Half Life
Endo, Exo, Enthalpy, Heat Capacity, Specific Heat, Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy, Spontaneity, Heat of Fusion, Heat of Vaporization
Zeroth Law, First Law, Second Law.
|Heat of Hydration||
Thermodinamically favorable. Solvation releases heat.
First heat is required (ENDOTHERMIC) to break up an ionic crystal lattice. The hydration step is exothermic.
|Think of Dissolving Salts, is it Exo/Endo Thermic?|
|Heat of Combustion||
Energy released when a compound is completely combusted with O2 under 1atm, 298K.
Ring Strain and Transanular effects result in increasd Heat of Combustion.
Ciclohexane has lowest heat of Combustion per CH2 group. o
|Heat of Formation||
Standard States 1atm of gas, or elemental solid. at constant T 298K, P 1atm.
Sum of all the bonds broken and all bonds formed from elemental atoms or molecules in their std state.
|Le Chatelier||In an equilibrium reaction mass of a species, temperature, or pressure can shift the equilibrium concentrations to favor an increae of products or reactants.||Reference: http://www.citycollegiate.com/chemical_equilibrium8.htm|
ΔG is negative. Standard Reduction Potential is positive E0.
DeltaG = -RTln(K); DeltaG = -nFE
Rate Determining Step
enzyme-catalysed reactions display saturation kinetics.
increasing substrate concentration means an increasing rate at which the enzyme and substrate molecules encounter one another.
Enzymes lower Activation Energy. Enzymes do not change the Thermodynamics of a Reaction.
Alpha particles: He nucleus: 2 protons, 2 neutrons
Beta particles: +/-
Beta Decay: neutron decomposes. Beta decay is usually B(-)
B(+): Nucleus converts a proton into a neutron and a positron.The positron is liberated. Atomic number decreases. Occurs when the isotope has too few neutrons.
B(-): electron is liberated. Atomic number is increased. Neutron is decomposed into electron and proton. Electron is referred to as B particle.
Electron Capture EC: electron meets proton and is converted into a neutron. Mass number stays the same but proton number is reduced. Element change.
Gamma Radiation: Eenergy emmitted as electromagnetic radiation.
Alpha particles are very destructive. 4/2. They are quickly absorbed by skin.
c = 3(10)^8 m/s
Wave Duality, Wave Properties, Amplitude, Intensity, Superposition, Resonance, Diffraction, Refraction, Harmonic Motion, Pendulum, Differential Movement
Solids, Density, Thermal Expansion, Viscosity, Magnetism, Force Direction, Coulomb, Ampere, Field Line, Charge Distribution, Insulation,
L= Iw moment of inertia times angular velocity around axis of rotation
tangential velocity = rl: product of radius and angular velocity
Centripetal force F = -mv^2/r
Momentum p = mv; m = Δ P / Δ t
Impulse I = Ft
Hook's law F = -kx
Momentum is always conserved: in elastic and inelastic reactions momentum is conserved.
In Inelastic collisions KE is NOT conserved. KE is lost.
Transverse Wave: Displacement of medium is perpendicular to direction. A transverse wave can only occur in the surface of a liquid, not in its body. TW can occur in solids.
Longitudinal Wave: Displacement of medium is along direction of motion.
Sound can be represented as a Longitudinal wave.
Light can be represented as a Transverse Wave.
|Spreading Equation Δθ = λ / d|
|Half Life||N= No(1/2)^(t/t(1/2))|
Current, Voltage, Resistance, Ohms, Resistivity, Capacitance
Circuits, Capacitor, Dielectric, Power, Circuits in Series, Circuits in Parallel
V = IR
I = Δ Q / Δ t
P = VI = RI^2
B = [Ns/Cm] = Force/ ChargexVelocity
|Ohms Law is used to calculate Voltage Drop across a resistor.|
|How do you know the Magnetic Field is Perpendicular to the Electric Field?|
|Applied Effects —°µ|
|Hydrostatic Pressure, Surface Tension, Bernoulli's Equation, Flow Profiles|
|Normal Force, Vectors||
Perfectly Inelastic p = (m1 + m2) v
Theta = arc length/ radius
|Refer to spreading equation of light and sound. The spreading is proportional to the wavelength of the emitted wave over the distance of the orifice of emission.|
|Power||Units: Watts: [W] P = VI = V^2 R|
|Energy Work||Units: Joules: [J]|
ΔPE=qDeltaPHI: electric lines point in the direction of the lower electric field..
|Force||Fspring = -kx|
|Waves||Light, Polatization, Refraction, Diffraction, Doppler Effect|
Interference, Young's double slit, laser, Color and Energy
Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflectio n with respect to the NORMAL. The angle is often referred with respect to the surface. Index of Refraction n = c / v. n1 sin( 1) = n2 sin(2). Internal reflection occurs when light travels from a medium of lesser light speed to greater light speed (greater n to less n)
Because the index of refraction of red and blue light is different the eye cannot focus on red and blue light in the same place.
|Magnetism||Direction and force of charge in magnetic field.|
|Resistance||Resistance is added in series.|
Parallel Voltages are equal. Voltage is a Potential Difference
V = I R
Galvanic and Voltaic cells are the same.
Electrolytic cells drive nonspontaneous reactions.
Current, Voltage, Resistance, Resistivity p = RA/L, Capacitance
RMS Voltage, RMS current.
Capacitors in series are 'parallel added'
(1/f) = (1/i) + (1/o); Magnification: M= -i/o; Focal length (f) is 1/2 radius of curvature: f = r/2;
Lens Power: [Diopters] = 1/f
Snells law: n sin () = n sin ()
Concave Mirror: Real (always Inverted) image small, same, larger to underfined, Virtual larger image
Convex Mirror: Virtual Erect smaller image. The
Cocave Lenses are Diverging.focal length is (-) for a diverging lens. Diverging Lenses form only Virtual Images. Virtual Images are upright so their magnification value is (+)
Diverging. Convex mirrors and Concave lenses NEVER form Real Images.
Real images can be cast on a Screen?
f is positive for a concave mirror and negative for a convex mirror.
All real images are inverted and all virtual images are upright.
How does the image of a Concave Mirror change as you move closer?
Optics: Eye Correction
Myope: Nearsighted: cannot see far away. Light focuses in front of retina. Divergent lenses are needed.
Hypermetropy: Farsighted: cannot see close. Light focuses behind retina. Convergent lens needed.
We loose Acccomodation as we age. Accomodation is the ability to
|ORGANIC CHEMISTRY||ORGANIC CHEMISTRY||ORGANIC CHEMISTRY|
|Nomenclature of Alkanes||
1. Take longer chain
2. Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers. When compairing a series of numbers, the series that is the "lowest" is the one which contains the lowest number at the occasion of the first difference. If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, assign the lowest number to the one which will come first in the name.
3. If chains of equal length are competing for selection as the parent chain, then the choice goes in series to:
sp is 50% s character which is less energetic than p. This results in increased acidity.
SP2 Hibridization: Trigonal planar geometry. Free p electron. Nitrogen in a cycle. Nitrogen in a cycle has the free pair projected outside the plane in trigonal planar geometry, sp2 hibridization.
SP Hibridization examples: triple bonds.
Exceptions: BH3 is sp2 hybridized.
CO2: sp with 180'
FC = V- (N + B/2); e.g. NH4+:
Nitrogen has a +1 formal charge (5- (0 + 8/2) = +1)
Oxygen in NO2- : 6 - (4 + 4/2) = 0
Formal Charge of Phosphoric Acid.P=0, hibridized sp3
FC = Valence - (alone bond pairs - half of bonding electrons)
5-(0+10/2) = 0
|Degrees of Saturation||
(C2n+2 - H) / 2; example BuckyBall C60: (122 - 0) / 2 = 61
Nitrogens count as 0.5C
Oxygen does not count.
Halogens count as Hydrogens.
Additional Equations exist that give the same result for degrees of unsaturation.
Shortcut: Double bond = 1deg of unsat.
1 triple bond = 2 deg of unsat
1 cyclic molecule = 1 degre of unsat
BP: Alkoxide>Carboxilic acid> Alcohol>Ether>Alkane
BP Amines: Amonium Salt>1ry>3ry
Amines basicity is increased with electron donating groups. Secondary amines are stronger bases than primary amines. Imine R=N-H
|Chirality||Geometric Isomers: cis-trans|
|Stereoisomer: 2^n: same chemical formula. R, S|
|Enantiomer R to S, RR to SS, SR to RS|
|Diastereomer RS to SS, SR to RR|
|Optical Activity: +/- indicate physical bend of light. R/S only indicate imaginary rotation.||Diastereomers and Racemic Mixtures are NOT optically active.|
Constitutional Isomers: Ortho ./ Para : same molecular formula with different connectivity.
Configurational (R), (S): differe in bond configuration.
Rotamers: Conformational Isomer.
Regioisomer: Different starting material configuration give different structuraly isomeric products.
Contributing structures with delocalized electrons in free p orbitals.
The contributing stuctures are not equal. The structure that locates the charge in the more electronegative atom is more stable.
Resonance contributes to increasing acidity by stabilizing the negative charge of conjugate bases.
|Hydrogen||Hydrogen Proton H+, Hydride ion H: -1|
|Heterolytic Hydrogen Cleavage||The electron pair of the bond goes to same atom.|
|Homolytic Hydrogen Cleavage||each electron of the bond goes to a different atom. Radicals are stabilized by electron donating groups. Peroxides give antiMarkovnikov products with alkenes.|
Radical Stability: Alllylic and Benzyllic Radical are comparable. Vinyllic Radical has higher bond energy because the double bond in more electronegative.
Br2 vs Cl2: Selectivity; ratio of products
Good Reference: http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/carey/student/olc/graphics/carey04oc/ref/ch10allylic.html
Increases going down the periodic table F- < Cl- < Br-< I-;
Increases to the left across a period CH3-> NH2- > OH-
Nu: are Lewis Bases. Donate protons.
Solvent: Polar Aprotic DMSO, DMF, MeCN, Dimethyl Ketone, Acetone: Polar Aprotic Solvents stabilize Carbocation. Polar Aprotic solvents cannot bond with Nu:
[Adjust], most stable carbocations. Racemization Likely so result is either a racemic mixture or diastereomer.
3ry>2ry: Carbocation is formed. Reaction Rate = k [electrophile]
Weak Nucleophiles Favor Sn1
|Alcohols and Alkyl Halides undergo substitution reactions.|
Solvent: Polar Aprotic DMSO,DMF, MeCN, Acetone,
Polar Protic Solvents favor E2 over SN2.
Polar APROTIC Solvents Favor SN2 over E2.
Sn2: Reaction is favored by 1 > 2 > 3 substitution because of crowding in the transition state. All other reactions are 3 > 2 > 1. Transition state is crowded so less substituted molecules undergo reaction faster. The reaction rate = k [nucleophile][electrophile]. Hydrogen bonding solvents prevent the nucleophile from initiating the reaction.
Pointer: Rule Out Possibilities: if you see a protic solvent rule out Sn2...
Solvent: Hydrogen Bonding Solvents
Reaction Rate = k [Haloalkane]
Polar Protic Solvents favor E2 over SN2.
STRONG Base Favors E2 because: base can deprotonate to free a pair of electrons.
Reaction Rate = k [Haloalkane] [Base]
|Reminder: "Protic = Pi = double bonds use a Pi bond"|
Stability of Intermediate
Strength of Nucleophile
|Markovnikov||more stable carbocation is formed. H and CH3- migration|
|antiMarkovnikov||less substituted alkyl bromide bond is formed.||HBr/hv with Peroxides|
|Trigonal Bipyramidal||upon loosing a pair of electrons becomes a seesaw.|
pH = pKa + log [A-]/[HA]
low pKa = High Ka = Strong Acid. If pH < pKa: Protonated.
If pH > pKa: BASIC, Unprotonated
A proton becomes acid when the bond breaks heterolytically.
Homolytic Bond Breaking: Homolysis: the bond breaking kcal/mol is higher = requires more energy. Electron pairing in heterolysis stabilizes.
|Alkene HaloAlkane Addition||Markovnikov, Not Enantioselective.|
|Alkene HaloAlkane Addition with Peroxide||
Gives Halogenated less substituted haloalkane.
|Alkene Hydration Acid Catalyzed||
Pi bond is protonated initially, forming a carbocation.
Gives Alcohol. Markovnikov.
Pi bond is protonated initially, forming a carbocation.
|Alkene DiHaloxen X-X Attack||
Sn2: Trans Product
Reaction proceed by instant (-) polarization of pibond by X-X
Reaction can yield Halogenated and -OH groups. -OH is Markovnikov.
|Alkene Epoxide Formation||
Gives Epoxide and Carboxylic acid..
Followed by acid or base hydrolysis to give Diol.
|Alkene Oxidation with KMnO4||
trans diol with peroxy acid.
|Alkene Hydration (Reduction) (cis or trans)||
H2 with Ni, Pd, Pt. cis addition. Lindlar Catalyst with dopant stops reaction at alkene.
trans addition is with Na, NH3
Reactant O3 + Zn in H20
Aromaticity: Huckel Number: 4n + 2; Cyclic, free p orbital with a Huckel number, flat and planar.
Can be accomplished via Cyclic Delocalization , Resonance, Conjugation
If an electron like Oxygen is in the bond we only use one pair of electrons for aromaticity
Examples: Purine, Pyridiine, Thymine
|Good Reference: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/benzrx1.htm|
|Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution||
The Benzene ring is succeptible to electrophilic attack. Heat is required because the ring is pi stabilized.
Ortho/Para: have lone pair of electrons on the atom bonding the ring. with the exception of alkyl R.
-NO2 is a META deactivator
Activators have free electrons in the atom bonded to the benzene ring: -NH2, -OC6H5, -OR, -O(-)
OrthoPara Deactivators: Cl, Br, I are deactivators
|Deactivators increase anion stability upon protonation: acidity is increased.|
|Aromatic Diels Alder||
Concerted Formation of Ciclic Compounds from conjugated diene.
Dienophyle = alkene or alkyne
Acid Alpha proton
Ketones do not undergo substitution reactions.
Beta keto Acid. Beta keto ester.
|Ketone Formation from 2ry Alcohols with Chromate Oxidation.|
Cyclic Contains 2 'ketones'
Cyclic Contains 1 ketone
|Ketones: Imines||Convert the Carbonyl to an Imine|
|Ketones: Aldol Condensation||
"one ketone stays the same and bonds with a double bond through the alpha carbon, after dehydration, so the carbonyl oxygen of the ketone that does not have alpha hydrogen is lost.
|Acyl Group||Carboxylic Acids> Acyl Halide, Acid Anhydride, Ester, Amide||
Acyl derivatives interconvert to lower reactivity.
Acid Halide > Acid Anhydride > Ester > Amide
less hindered carbonyl is more reactive.
Acetate CH3 COOR
Acidity Order: HC l> Carboxylic Acid > Substituted Phenol > diketone > ketone
|Bases Deprotonate to give COO- Salts|
Nucleophilic Addition Elimination
|electronegative groups allow attack at the Carbonyl and serve as good leaving groups.|
|Carboxylic Acids||Transesterification: Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid gives Ester.|
|Ester||are neutral in solution.|
Nucleophilic Acyl substitution : Addition Elimination : Saponification
Acid and Basis Catalyzed
|Inorganic Esters||Central Carbon P, S. Contain more than one double bond.||See reaction of PBr3 with 3ROH -> H3PO3 + 3RBr|
Reductive Amination: Amines Attack of Ketones to yield 1,2,3ry substituted Imines that are Reduced with H2/Pd to Amines.
Amines to Alkenes via HoffMann Elimination: Less substituted alkenes.
Acid Base Reactions with Carboxylic Acids
Basic Leaving groups decrease reactitvity of Acid Chlorides with respect to Anhydrides> Esters>Amides
Hoffman Rearrangement: Amides are converted to Amines
|Imines||Schiff Base R1R2C=NR3|
Sugars, Proteins, Fats, Metabolism, pKa, Anomeric Carbon
See SSSFFF Biology
Fructose, Glucose, Ribose
LOOK at chirality FARTHEST from C1 to determine L/R.
Sucrose: Glc + Fru: Alpha-1,2
Lactose: Gal + Glc: Beta-1,4
Maltose: Glc + Glc: Alpha-1,4
Cellobiose: Glc + Glc: Beta-1,4
Glycogen: α 1-4
EPIMERS are NEVER Enantiomers. Epimers differ only in one stereogenic center that IS NOT the last chiral carbon. Alpha/Beta epimers: Alpha = Axial, Beta = Equatorial
HAWORTH Projection: Beta is UP!!!
Aldohexose vs ketopentose, vs aldotriose (threeOHgroups)
ketohexoses (6OH and 1 C=O)
Anomeric Carbon: cyclic: opposite the CH2OH outside the rinh
|Sulfur Containing Molecules||Mesylate, Triflate, Tosylante|
All natural AA are L, amphoteric
Carboxylic pKa aprox 2. Amino Group pKa aprox 10
Form salt to become water soluble: Carboxilic acids are extracted with weak bases.
NaHCO3 is better than NaOH because it destabilized aromatic structures.
|10 Enzymes Everyone should know||
Hexokinase / Hexose / Dehydrogenase / Oxidase
|Reactant List||HNO3||EAS Activator of|
|Br2 + FeBr3 (heat)||EAS Bromination|
|H2SO4 (heat)||EAS Sulfonation|
|Friedel-Craft RCOCl + AlCl3 (heat)||EAS Aryl Ketone|
|Friedel-Craft RCl + AlCl3 (heat)||EAS Alkylation|
|Hg(OAc) in Water then NaBH4||Alkene Oxidation to Markovnikov Alcohol|
|BH3 in THF then H2O2||Alkene Anti Markovnikov Alcohol|
|PCC||Anhydrous Oxidant: 1ry Alcohol to Aldehydes|
|CrO3/ H2CrO4/Cr2O7-2/CrO3||Aqueous Oxidants: 2ry Alcohol to Ketones|
NaBH4 in EtOH
|Reductor of Carbonyl|
|LiAlH4 in Ether (aprotic)||Reductor of Carbonyl|
|NaH, KH||Hydride bases|
|Grignard RMgBr in Acid||Reductor of Carbonyl + R|
|RLi||Reductor of Carbonyl + R|
|Wittig Phosphonium Ylide||Reductor of Carbonyl to Alkene|
Aldol Condensation. Base attacks Alpha proton.
Beta Hydroxyl Carbonyl or Alpha/Beta unsaturated Carbonyl
|NaOH / KOH||Saponification|
|SOCl2||Inorganic Ester reactions.|
|NaHCO3||Extraction of Carboxilic Acids|
|10% HCl||Extraction of Amines|
|Tosyl Chloride||Stabilizez anion charge in COO-, H leaves|
|Molecules to know||Furan, Pyran, Toluene, Naphtalene, Phenanthrene|
|Elastic Properties||Elastic Limit|
|Thermal Expansion Coefficient|
|SHORT PATH DISTILLATION|
|SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION|
|Detection Techniques||Detection IR|
3300 Amines (OH broadest, NH sharper)
2300 - 2100 C---C or C---N
1700 C=0 (Carbonyl, Carboxylic Acids)
|Chromatography||Separation of derivatized diastereomers. Enantiomers can be reacted with a known stereochemistry comp.|
Also referred to as Gravity Column Chromatography
|TLC R factor: Polar molecules are retained by Silica, so have smaller R f.|
|Size Exclusion Chromatography SEC||Large Elute First.||
Size Exclusion, gel permeation chromatography or gel filtration chromatography. separates particles on the basis of molecular size (actually by a particle's Stokes radius). It is generally a low resolution chromatography and thus it is often reserved for the final, "polishing" step of the purification. It is also useful for determining the tertiary structure and quaternary structure of purified proteins. SEC is used primarily for the analysis of large molecules such as proteins or polymers. SEC works by trapping these smaller molecules in the pores of a particle. The larger molecules simply pass by the pores as they are too large to enter the pores.
Iodomelatonin in the presence of selective antagonist for the receptor
We have pharmacologically characterized recombinant human mt1 and MT2 receptors, stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-mt1 and CHO-MT2), by measurement of [3H]-melatonin binding and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production.
[3H]-melatonin bound to mt1 and MT2 receptors with pKD values of 9.89 and 9.56 and Bmax values of 1.20 and 0.82pmolmg−1 protein, respectively. Whilst most
Whilst most melatonin receptor agonists had similar affinities for mt1 and MT2 receptors, a number of putative antagonists had substantially higher affinities for MT2 receptors, inclu ding luzindole (11 fold), GR128107 (23 fold) and 4-P-PDOT (61 fold).
In both CHO-mt1 and CHO-MT2 cells, melatonin inhibited forskolin-stimulated accumulation of cyclic AMP in a concentration-dependent manner (pIC50 9.53 and 9.74, respectively) causing 83 and 64% inhibition of cyclic AMP production at 100nM, respectively. The potencies of a range of melatonin receptor agonists were determined. At MT2 receptors, melatonin, 2-iodomelatonin and 6-chloromelatonin were essentially equipotent, whilst at the mt1 receptor these agonists gave the rank order of potency of 2-iodomelatonin>melatonin>6-chloromelatonin.
In both CHO-mt1 and CHO-MT2 cells, melatonin-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole, with pA2 values of 5.75 and 7.64, respectively. Melatonin-mediated responses were abolished by pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin, consistent with activation of Gi/Go G-proteins.
Base Peak is the largest peak. It is fragmented.
Parent peak is the ion of the molecule without fragmentation.
Uncharged molecules are not detected.
More fragmentation produces smaller peaks.
Quantitative and Qualitative: The m/z ratio
|Nuclear Magnetic Resonance||
Electron donating are shielding, Electron Withdrawing are deshielding.
Left axis has larger number. So deshielded protons appear to the left=downfield (-RCOOH). Shielded protons appear to the right (H-C-CH3x3)
1-propyne vs 1 propene: s haracter is less shielding.
ORDER: Aldehyde and Carboxylic- Aromatic- Vinillyc--- Halogen, ether, allyl, alkyne, benzyllic .
Allylic proton is very deshielded.
Memorize the 6-8ppm region is Aromatic.
Geminal Methyl Groups are identical.
Good Reference: http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/chemistry/courses/toolkits/380/js/nmr1/
|C NMR||Height of Peak proportional to number of H attached to C.|
|BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES||BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES||BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES|
Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay
Antibody binds antigen-Wash-Enzume Linked antibody-Wash-Color Change
|VULCANIC CHEMISTRY||BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES|
Hotspots, Magma, 700C to 1600C, SiO2, Fe, Mg, 2200-2800kg/m3, IDDP magma geothermal energy generator
Phreatic vs Phreatomagmatic vs Magmatic Eruption
Magmatic Eruption: Decompression of Gas
Phreatic Eruption: Superheated Water Expansion
Phreatomagmatic Eruption: Compression of Gas within Magma
Mount Pele in St Pierre, Martinique exploded in 1903 killing 30k.
Tools for Earthquake Prediction:
Thermal tools: Heat
Chemical: Vulcanic Chemistry, Water Quality and Gas Composition
Nuclear: Particle Counters through volcanic Mass
Mechanical: Earthquakes and Sound waves.
|One Arcminute is equal to 1/60 of one degree. One Arcsecond is equal to 1/60 Arcminute. So One Arcsecond is equal to 1/3600 of a degree.|
|One degree is 1/360 of a circle. One Arcminute is (1/60)(1/360)=(1/21600) of a Circle. 1deg=3600arcseconds;|
|To complete a circle of 360deg, with a frequency of 500arcsec/century will take (360)(3600)/500 centuries.|
CHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEM CHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEM CHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEM CHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEM CHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEMCHEM ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERING ENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERING ENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERING ENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERING ENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERINGENGINEERING
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World Regulatory Bar: To improve the Engineering World, The Synthetic Forest seeks to explore and compare differences in World Engineering Regulations.
Supply Chain Management
Sources of Finance
Equity, Loans, Working Capital
Tank Inspections (Pharmaceutical)
Electropolishing and Surface Priming
Impeller Selection, Mixing Profiles, Heat Profiles
Turnover Packages Inspections, Materials Selection, Pipeline Installations, Leak Tests, Seals and Gaskets
Cleaning Skits, Soap Selection, Cleaning Strategies, Cleaning Validation
Quality Laboratory Inspections
CAPAs and EVs
21CFR is FDA
Pressure Stage vs Temperature Stage
High Vacuum, ISO5 to ISO8 Facility
Particle Counters Viable and Non Viable
Point Differential Finite Element Analysis CFD
Cell Culture (Biotechnology)
21CFR610 General Biological Products
Cell Growth and Scale Up: From Clones to Grafts.
Cell Culturing and Lab Analysis: PCR, North to West Blots. Electrophoresis, Gene Chips, Sequencing Analysis.
Biotechnological Testing Equipment Comissioning. Centrifuges, Filters, Pumps, Dispensing Systems.
Test Selection and Design of Experiments.
Marine Vessel Inspections
Oil Carriers, Food Carriers, Vessel Entry Permits.
Water Treatment Inspections
40 CFR414 Effluent Guidelines
OCPSF Organic, Chemical, Plastics,
Waste Water Pretreatment
URS, IQ, OQ, PQ
HVAC System Validation
Installing Compressed Air Lines
Installing Refrigeration Units
Flammable Hot Work
Working with Flammables
Fire Safety and Regulations
Storage and Safety
Computer System Validation CSV
Data logs and Forms
Integrity and Security
Power Consuption Estimation
Safety Material Storage
Food and Drug
Quality Risk Management
Catalysis and Reconstitution
Fischer Tropsch Reactors
Inductive Heating into Syn Gas
Sugars and Derivatives
Drug Delivery Systems
Controlled Release Systems
Solutions, Emulsions, Suspensions.
Drug Delivery Technologies
Semiconductors / Superconductors
Organic / Inorganic Polymers
SYNTHETIC FIBERS, POLYMERS
GASES and LIQUIDS
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|World Law Bodies|
|United States of America||http://www.usa.gov/Topics/Reference-Shelf/Laws.shtml|
Heat Exchangers, Chillers, Air Handling Units, Compressors, Pump, Ducts, Piping, Refrigerant
Oral Solids Sterile Products & Medical Devices
HVAC requirements for GMP
Design to Qualify, EconomicsQualification and Risk
IQ - OQ - PQ
Wrap UpAir Filter References
HVAC system concepts
HVAC system-critical parameters
Cleanroom air classifications and explain how they are applied
Role of HVAC in protecting products
Examine typical HVAC system designs utilized for bulk, oral solid dosage, sterile, biopharmaceutical, and packaging and warehousing operations
Understand the basics of process laboratory HVAC
HEPA filter theory, application, monitoring, testing, and repair
Cite HVAC maintenance requirements
ENGINEERING TRENDS: CLEAN ROOM TESTING:
CLEAN ROOM TESTING
|Airflow Volume / Velocity Readings||Assures that both unidirectional and non-unidirectional flow areas are properly balanced and unidirectional zones are maintaining proper air patterns|
|Room Air Exchange rates||States if the area is meeting its design airflow|
|HEPA Filter Integrity Testing||Tests HEPA filters and system for leaks|
|Non-viable Particle Counting||Reports the amount of airborne particulate of a specified size in the clean zone|
|Temperature / Relative Humidity Testing||Examines whether the air HVAC controls are functioning properly and uniformly|
|Pressure Cascade Monitoring||Verifies that room differential pressures are operating according to design|
|Air balancing||Adjusts airflow in the air handling systems to achieve design airflow, room air exchange rates, and pressure cascade|
|Airflow Visualization Testing||Qualitatively verifies airflow direction using a source of visible fog
|Viable Environmental Monitoring||Samples both the air and surface for microbe enumeration and identification|
|Compressed Gas Testing|| Assures that the compressed gas sources meet the requirements of the controlled environment for contamination and microorganisms
Lighting, vibration, and sound tests – assures worker comfortAll other special tests from the ISO/IEST guidelines
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
References: [cGMP], Institute of Environmental Sciences Technologies [IEST], and International Organization for Standardization [ISO].
Waste Water Systems
WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Typical Water Management Systems used by manufacturing and power plants include the following processes:
Reduction of Inorganic and Organic Material
ENGINEERING TRENDS: ENGINEERING BOTTLENECKS
Are you managing an unmaneagable process? What are the bottlenecks? Personnel, Systems, Budget, Seasonal Variations, Publicity, Vendors?
Personnel Bottlenecks: Rotten Apples: One employee...
Project Management (PM) does not deal with "Business as Usual", PM deals with projects or with tasks that have a beginning, middle and end, and evolve over the course of time until the project is handed over to a client.
PMN balance Budget, Time, and Money and Staff in the phases of Planning/Initation, overseeing Execution and Monitoring, Troubleshooting and Closing.
PMN execute in different ways under Information Technology, Biotech, or Construction. Generally PMN deal with Scheduling, Tracking, Budget Control, Risk Management, Strategizing, Quality Management, Workflow Control, involving Resource Allocation, Human Resource Management, Material Resource Management, and Tme Mangement.
Identify Deliverables: Benchmarks
Draft Project Plan:
Draft Project Checklists: Outline all Tasks needed to complete the project and check tasts as they are completed.
Update Stakeholders with Presentations
This post is about learning the basic fundaments about calculating value, reducing losses, and understanding the constraints related to project management. The list will not be exhaustive, however, with your help this list can be refined and sharpened to focus on the more salient or pertinent calculations regarding this matter. Most projects can be manages with simple spreadsheets but Engineering Projects involve short term and long term predictions on the impact of expenditures on the overall budget and these considerations are communicated frequently to investors and stakeholders. The results of these calculations have imminent effects on the final physical structure and often lead to drastic project overhaul or expansions.
Planned value (PV): The approved budget for the work scheduled to be completed by a specified date; also referred to as the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS). The total PV of a task is equal to the task’s budget at completion (BAC)— the total amount budgeted for the task.
Earned value (EV): The approved budget for the work actually completed by the specified date; also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).
Actual cost (AC): The costs actually incurred for the work completed by the specified date; also referred to as the actual cost of work performed(ACWP).Schedule variance (SV): The difference between the amounts budgeted for the work you actually did and for the work you planned to do. The SV shows whether and by how much your work is ahead of or behind your approved schedule.
Cost variance (CV): The difference between the amount budgeted and the amount actually spent for the work performed. The CV shows whether and by how much you’re under or over your approved budget.
Schedule performance index (SPI): The ratio of the approved budget for the work performed to the approved budget for the work planned. The SPI reflects the relative amount the project is ahead of or behind schedule, sometimes referred to as the project’s schedule efficiency. You can use the SPI to date to project the schedule performance for the remainder of the task.
Cost performance index (CPI): The ratio of the approved budget for work performed to what you actually spent for the work. The CPI reflects the relative value of work done compared to the amount paid for it, sometimes referred to as the project’s cost efficiency. You can use the CPI to date to project the cost performance for the remainder of the task.
Schedule and cost variances and performance indicators are defined mathematically as follows:
Schedule variance (SV) = Earned value (EV) – Planned value (PV)
Cost variance (CV) = Earned value (EV) – Actual cost (AC)
Schedule performance index (SPI) = Earned value (EV) / Planned value (PV)Cost performance index (CPI) = Earned value (EV) / Actual cost (AC)
The final step when assessing task performance to date is to update what you expect your total expenditures will be upon task completion. Specifically, you want to determine the following:
Estimate at completion (EAC): Your estimate today of the total cost of the task
Estimate to complete (ETC): Your estimate of the amount of funds required to complete all work still remaining to be done on the task
PM: ISO3100 RISK MANAGEMENT Risks are about events that, when triggered, cause problems or benefits. Any event that may endanger achieving an objective partly or completely is identified as risk.
Identification: Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their potential severity of impact (generally a negative impact, such as damage or loss) and to the probability of occurrence.
Assessment: Once risks have assessed, all techniques to manage the risk fall into one or more of these four major categories:
Implementation and Review: Evaluate whether the previously selected security controls are still applicable and effective
Prioritizing the risk management processes too highly could keep an organization from ever completing a project or even getting started.
Risk Analysis Tools:
Fault tree analysis (FTA)
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Hazard and operability study (HAZOP)
Risk traceability analysis
|Identify (Source Risk)||Analyze||Response||Control (Monitoring|
|ID||Description||Category||Probability||Impact||Added Days||Status of Response||Response Cost||Total Cost|
|x||Chiller Efficiency Drop||Utilities||0.01||High||4||Chiller Maintenance Pending||$x,xxx.xx USD||$x,xxx.xx USD|
Do you really need MS Project?
PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRENDS: STAFFING
Do you really need MS Project?
ENGINEERING TRENDS: QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: Trends in Administrations systems, philosophical differences between QMS, Hierarchical and Organizational Differences.
Drug Manufacturing Quality Documentation: Managing a Drug Manufacturing Site requires precise control over all steps that impact the Identity, Purity, Efficacy, and Quality of the product. The high level of precision requires that manufacturing tasks are well understood by personnel and these tasks are not limited to steps making the drug product. Control requires ALL areas to provide the highest standards of as required by local and international standardizing and regulatory bodies.
Have you covered all aspects of the working site? Are you missing an area? Would you imagine working in areas where tasks were not defined? Documentation needs to describe the areas, processes, machines, units as well as steps, calculations and precautions.
There are many more areas that require precise documentation to provide the rigor and control required to produce a high quality chemical product.
In order to produce and control such documents facilities have document management systems that provide easy access to employees. Employees become familiar with the tasks before executing them and with these documents employees are Trained-and-Tested to provide a level of proficiency prior to execution. These documents are "Living Documents", what this means is that once drafted the documents are not destroyed. Instead they go through a lifetime of changes and these changes however minor are docmented and tracked within the document so people reading the document can see the changes to the document through revisions.
Changes do not become effective until 75-85% of all employees have been trained on the changes. So after rigorous control it is expeced that changes howere impactful or minor are taken into account by all employees driving continuous improvement.
PROCESS TRENDS: SERIALIZATION, GLOBAL HARMONIZATION: Packaging, Stacking, Monitoring, Storage, Shipment and Control.
New Medical Products
What considerations are needed to Manufacture a New Product
New Drug Application
New Dietary Supplements
New Biomedical Devices
New Drug Application
Investigational New Drug
Investigational IND includes:
Animal study data and toxicity (side effects that cause great harm) data
Clinical protocols (study plans) for studies to be conducted
Data from any prior human research
Information about the investigator
Permissions to transport drugs across state boundaries.
Laboratory Data, Patient Data
Clinical Trials 21CFR312
|CLINICAL TRIALS PHASE OVERVIEW|
Tested on Healthy Patients
Maximum Tolerated Dose. Safety, Dose threshold, Biological Therapeutic Effect
Size of Population <100
Tested on Patients with the Condition
Tested on General Population Volunteers
Comparing Placebo and Current Therapies to New Therapy
New Dietary Supplements
Storage and Handling of Chemicals
Maximum Allowable Quantities
International Fire Code
Ladder Supports and Clearances
Voltage Requirements and Related Ground Faulting
Laminar Flow Hood Qualification
Clean Room Qualification
FIRE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Fire Management Consulting: Prevention, Planning, Rescue Operations, Hazard Identification, Communication Protocols, Adherence and Enforcement of Policy are all elements of Fire Management
Goals(General): Prevent Injury, Preventl loss of Life, Prevent loss of Property
Objective (Metrics): Prevent ocurrence of fire and explosion (#). Provide Means of Escape (t). Contain, Control and Suppress fire and explosion origins. Decrease total number of work related casualties (h). Decrease total number of loss work hours. Decrease total number of work related injuries. Increase the level of safety by introducing added meeasures of protection in each task performed.
Fire Prevention Plans must be kept in writing and must be communicated orally to all personnel.
Establish a Storage and Handling Zone. Isolate zone from heat sources at least 35ft away. Consider mass transfer of vapors. Consider also temperature effects that may volatilize liquids far away from a heat source.
Isolate the Handling Zone from electric conduction by grounding the casing.
In the Event of a fire Understand the Elements of the Fire Triangle and how to isolate the heat source from the oxidant, or how to lower the temperature of the fire.
Know Fire Chemistry: Stoichiometry, LEL, UEL, LFL, UFL, Heat of Combustion, Latent Heat, Heat of Vaporization, Conduction, Convetion, Radiation, Reid Vapor Pressure, Ignition energy, Ignition Temperature, Heat Value, BLEVE, Vapor Cloud Explosion, Overpressure, Backdraft, Flashover, Flash Point,
Causes of Explosions: Spark, Arc, Heat Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Deflagration, Collision, Friction, Nature, Chemical Reaction, Nuclear Reaction
Two Types of Explosion: Deflagration vs Detonation
Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the LEL and UEL. The Flash Point is the lowest temperature and pressure at which a vapor/liquid may spark or ignite.
Explosions are divided into two different categories. Deflagration and Detonations, both invove equilibrium procesess of a gas, an oxidizer, and heat in a medium undergoing expansion. Deflagrations occur with mass transfer at low velocites directed at the reaction zone wheras Detonations are violent and the expansive gas is the reactive zone.
Design Considerations: Spacing, Protocols, Procedures, Sewage Control, Diking, Housekeeping, Tool Inspections, Heat source elimination, area desinations, Training.
Fire and Electricity: Eliminate Arc, or Sparks by using rated currents far from the boundary limits for conduction or arcing of current. Ground, and Bond equipment, tanks, storage bins, Understand Charge dissipation, Capacitance, Resistivity, Induction
Understand Fixed and Portable Fire Protection Systems (OSHA29CFR1910.160): Extinguishing Agent, Nozzle, Piping, Control Pane, Alarm, Detector, Visual and Audible Warnings.. Semianual inspections, Desired extinguishing concentrations shall be dispensed under 30seconds.
Fire Extinguishers: Located every 75ftA/D fire, 50ftBfire, when close to a flammable liquid storage area. 1 Fire Extinshisher per 3000sqft of building area.
|Fire Extinguishing Materials|
|22, 9, 7, 5, 3kg.|
|Ammonium Phosphate||ABC Fires||10, 5, 1kg|
|Halon||ABC Fires||low mass|
|Sodium Chloride||C Fires||dry powder only|
|Sodium Carbonate||C Fires||dry powder only|
|Dry Chemical||Hydrostatic Test 6 years|
Develop Cost Reduction Strategy
Develop Service Requirements:
Material Specifications for product, packaging, and labeling
Vendor List: QA Screens Vendor List for Compliance issues from FDA, Recalls and Warning Letters. Operational Licenses, Certifications, Company Structure, Data Management and General Operational Qualit of the Vendor is Rated by QA.
Involve a Cross Functional Team: R&D, Engineering, QA, Corporate. Material selection impacts directly product quality and company identity. All players should be involved in detecting vendor strengths and weaknesses.
Perform Facility Audit: Confirm strategic, logistic and productio infrastructure is present. Note any Structural issues that may affect product characteristics. Address long term manufacturing plan with site leaders to ensure no manufacturing changes will impact your supply.
Develop Quality Agreement: Agree that changes in the manufacturing process or issues related to FDA inspections are reported and prevent their impact in your manufacturing process. Ensure that CAPAs, OOS, Customer Complaints are reported and addressed.
Monitor Qualification Status: Re-qualification process and on-site audit
Key words: Safety, Identity, Strength, Quality, Purity... Quality Control Unit...Batch Records Controls, Uniformity,Complaints, Surfaces not reactive, additive, absortive; Sanitization vs Sterilization; Justification of Deviations; Pyrogen, Containers, Second Person Verificatin, In-process testing; Bioburden, Time limitations, Reprocessing, 100% Visual/electronic Inspection. Tamper-Evident, Laboratory, Stability Testing, Release, Warehousing, Reserve Samples, Laboratory Animals, Records and Results. Are we now experts? Certainly not! Compliance is an ongoing Business, and Ongoing opportunity to correct everyday problems, new products require new solutions and as technology evolves, new facets require polishing by regulatory compliance. Quality is by Design!
The pointers are considered voluntary guidelines:
Multiple thermocouples throughout chamber (not inside product containers) to determine effect of load configuration on temperature distribution temperature distribution for all loads using all container sizes used in production should be tested –position of thermocouples should be documented Slowest to heat/cold spots in each run should be documented, inlcuding the drain –repeat runs should be performed to check variability temperature distribution profile for each chamber load configuration should be documented
Identification of Critical Factors and Operational Ranges. The performance of the sterilization process is linked to the maintenance and control of a set of defined critical factors:Parameters to evaluate as critical factors may include, but are not limited to:
LogD vs T: da Z. para un log10 reduction de D
F(12D)= Kill time 12 fold reduction of known
ENGINEERING TRENDS: MICRO STERILIZATION VALIDATION <USP>71
Use on: Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, Thermodegradable or Thermosusceptible materials.
GAMMA RAY STERILIZATION (ISO 11137)
|SAL of 10^-6||
Probability of a viable micro-organism present on the device must be equal to or less than 1 in a million.
One in a million (or less) devices are expected to remain contaminated after terminal sterilization.
A sterility test on 10-100 samples isn’t even close to reliably measuring a failure rate of 1/1,000,000 devices.
|CFU||Unit of Viable bacterial or fungall cells reproducing by Binary Fission|
|[kGy]||absorbed units / unit mass|
1 log reduction on viable count.
90% reduction of total count.
|Sample Item Portion||Proportion of Sample manipulable in a laboratory.|
selected sterilization doses of 25 kGy and 15 kGy. The method for 25 kGy is applicable to products having an average bioburden less than or equal to 1,000 CFUs (colony forming units) per device. The method for 15 kGy is applicable to products having an average bioburden less than or equal to 1.5 CFUs per device.
VDmax Method: Justification for a sterilising dose of 25 kGy or 15 kGy Bellow is an example of the procedure for the VDmax 25 method on multiple production batches
1- Obtain product samples The product samples must be representative of routinely sterilised products.
2- Determine the average microbial load of 3 batches of 10 pieces
3- According to the table of ISO11137-2, determine the verification dose
4- Conduct verification dose experiments; irradiate 10 products at the verification dose and perform a sterility test on each of the products
5- Interpret the results: Accept the 25 kGy sterilisation dose if 0 or 1 of the 10 pieces is positive. Conduct verification dose confirmation experiments if 2 are positive. Do not accept the verification if there are more than 2 positives 40 products are required for this method. This method is only viable for validating sterilising doses of 15 or 25 kGy.
1- Select the sterility assurance level (SAL) and select 10 product samples from 3 independent production batches (or 30 samples)
2- Determine the average microbial load of the 3 batches of 10 items (method based on ISO 11737-1)
3- Obtain the verification dose (referring to table 5 of ISO11137-2)
4- Conduct verification dose experiments on 100 irradiated pieces (method based on ISO 11737- 2)
5- Interpret the results
6- Establish the sterilisation dose based on the results (maximum of 2 positives out of 100 pieces) 130 products are therefore required for this method. The advantage of this method is that it enables any sterilising dose to be validated.
1- Select the sterility assurance level (SAL) and obtain samples of the product (at least 280 samples for 2 independent production batches) The product samples must be representative of the products routinely sterilised.
2- Conduct the incremental dose experiments; irradiate 20 pieces at incremental doses of 2 kGy beginning with the 2 kGy dose and using at least 9 values. This is to be done for each of the 3 batches involved. Perform a sterility test on each of the products.
3- Conduct verification dose experiments; irradiate 100 pieces at the verification dose and perform a sterility test on each of the products
4- Examine the results 5- Establish the sterilising dose based on the results
Performance Qualification (PQ)
Product PQ: carried out under the supervision of the product manufacturer. This determines compliance of the sterilization process on the product.
1) Dose Mapping: The first step of the validation is to verify that every product in the sterilization container receives a dose complying with the specifications (for example 25-40 kGy). As the dose received by the products can depend of the density of the products and their position in the sterilization container, before performing the dose mapping validation, the product loaded patter shall be established. With this product loaded pattern, dosimeters will be placed to measure the dose received by the products at different points of the sterilization container.
2) Validation of the sterilising dose: This part of the product PQ makes it possible to validate the minimum irradiation dose required to sterilise the product (i.e. to guarantee a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10-6). 3) Validation of the maximum dose: This part of the validation procedure verifies by means of various kinds of tests that product characteristics are not degraded by irradiation, even at the maximum dose.
PROCESS VS PRODUCT CONTROL:
(USL- Avg.)/3σ or (Avg. - LSL.)/3σ
Engineering Tolerance / Natural Tolerance
Processes in control are close to Cp = 2.
This parameter tells you what is the "process spread" assuming that manufacturing is normal.
Cp shows whether the distribution can potentially fit inside the specification
A high Cp tells you that variation in output is low around process specification.
Uses Subgroup Variation.
Cpk = Min(CpU,CpL)
Ability to produce outcome within specification
Desribes how mean is centered within Specification. Shows whether the overall average is centrally located.
Cpk =2 means your width can grow 2 times before going OOS
Cpk can never exceed Cp.
Cp can be seen as the potential Cpk if the overall average is centrally set. If Cp is 1.20 and Cpk is 0.69. This shows that the distribution can potentially fit within the specification. However, the overall average is currently off center. The Cpk value does not state whether the overall average is offset on the upper or lower side.
Cpk=1.0), a process will produce approximately 99.73% good product or .27% bad product. At Cpk = 1.33.the process will manufacture approximately 99.9937% good product or .0063% bad product.
(Upper Spec - Lower Spec) / 6 sigma
(USL- Avg.)/3σ or (Avg. - LSL.)/3σ
Uses Overall Variation
Ppk = Min(PpU,PpL)
Sshould be close to Cpk if process is stable and variation is small.
Estimator of process control before process has been controlled, usually when process has output a low number of products Ppk is used to determine how "in control" a process is.
Accuracy = Xbar - X
Residuals = Difference between observed and Estimated value
Special Variation Rules:
Rule 1: 3std from mean
Rule 2: 9 consecutive points above or below mean
Rule 3: 6 or more points continually increasing or decreasing
Rule 4: 14 or more points continually oscillating.
Rule 5: 2 or more points are consecutively more than 2std from mean in same direction.
Rule 6: 4 or more points are consecutively more than 1std from mean in same direction.
Rule 7: 15 or more points are consecutively within 1std from mean.
Rule 8: 8 points are out outside of 1 std deviation from mean in both directions.
|Tolerance||Difference between the USL and LSL.|
"We are 95% confident that our interval will contain the sample mean of the population... that is to say that we are 95 times out of a 100 finding the mean of the population within our confidence interval and 5 times out of a 100 we are not. 95% speaks about the process of finding the confidence interval and has Nothing to do with the mean of the population"
|Power of Test||
Increase: Required Sample Size, n; Detectable Difference, between the mean under H0 and H1, µ0 − µ1 ; Level of significance, α;
• Decrease: Variability
Gauge R&R is a test of variance between the effect of The Part, The Operator and the System
Variation = Vpart + Vgauge(R&R)
Crossed R&R: Xbar and R
Nested R&R: 1op, similar.parts.(destructive)
Gauge Run Chart by Operator
COPQ: cost of poor quality.
Standardized value of how one score compares with Population in terms of Standard Deviations.A z-score equal to 1 represents an element that is 1 standard deviation greater than the mean.
Z = (x - mu) / sigma
Statement of rejection adopted to commence a statistical analysis.
Null hypotheses are not inferred directly.The Null hypothesis is rejected by testing the validity of the opposite statement.
Small p-value (typically ≤ 0.05) indicates STRONG evidence AGAINST the NULL hypothesis, so you reject the null hypothesis.
Large p-value (> 0.05) indicates WEAK evidence AGAINST the NULL hypothesis, so you fail to reject the null hypothesis
p-values very close to the cutoff (0.05) are considered to be marginal (could go either way).
|Error Tipo 1||
False Positive: Incorrect Rejection of null hypothesis.
The probability of making a type I error is α, which is the level of significance you set for your hypothesis test.
An α of 0.05 indicates that you are willing to accept a 5% chance that you are wrong when you reject the null hypothesis.
For a fixed sample size, the probability of making a Type II error is inversely related to the probability of making a Type I error. Thus, in order to achieve a desirable power for a fixed level of significance, the sample size will generally need to increase.
EX.: Null: Two medications are the same. A type I error occurs if the researcher rejects the null hypothesis and concludes that the two medications are different when, in fact, they are not.
|Error Tipo 2||
False Negative: Failure of rejection of False Null Hypothesis.
The probability of making a type II error is β, which depends on the power of the test. You can decrease your risk of committing a type II error by ensuring your test has enough power. You can do this by ensuring your sample size is large enough to detect a practical difference when one truly exists.
EX.:Null Two medications are the same. the researcher concludes that the medications are the same when, in fact, they are different
|Isolating Special Causes||
SIPOC: Supplier Input Process Output Customers
Group Effort driven towards Continuous Improvement
Hypothesis test comparing the Mean of a Population vs a Reference Mean
Student's T test: small population, deviates from Normal Distribution, gives a Probability Density Function.
1 sample T-Test compares mean of a population to the reference standard when the standard deviation of the population is unknown.
2-sample T-Test compares means of two populations.
T Paired: Compares two ligated observations. Ex.: Before and After weight loss.
|T value||Measures Difference in terms of Standard Deviations. The greater T value (+/-) the greater evidence against (to reject) Null Hypothesis|
Probabilty that the Two Sided T value is above and below the T value in a T distribution.
When the Null hypothesis is true the T value falls in this probability region with.
High P value = True Null.
Low P value = Data does not contradict Null Hypothesis.
P values are calculated on the assumption that the Null is true for the population and that the difference between populations is by random effects.
Analysis of Variance: Hypothesis test that allows the comparison of variation between groups.
F-Statistic: Similar to T-Statistic from a T Test.
Skewness and Kurtosis should be close to 0 in a Normality Test.
Shapiro Wilk Test with p < 0.05
|System Suitability||Test to ensure Systems, Analytes, Columns, Reagents and Operators are functioning properly prior to formal Analysis Execution.|
|Limit of Linearity||See Test Method Validation|
|Limit of Detection||See Test Method Validation|
NP-Chart: for monitoring the number of times a condition occurs, relative to a constant sample size, when each sample can either have this condition, or not have this condition
P-Chart: for monitoring the percent of samples having the condition, relative to either a fixed or varying sample size, when each sample can either have this condition, or not have this condition
c-Chart: for monitoring the number of times a condition occurs, relative to a constant sample size, when each sample can have more than one instance of the condition.
u-Chart: for monitoring the percent of samples having the condition, relative to either a fixed or varying sample size, when each sample can have more than one instance of the condition.
|DOX||Design of Experiments|
HVAC BasicsAir Filters
Boilers: Boiler Video
CLEAN ROOM TESTING
[cGMP], Institute of Environmental Sciences Technologies [IEST], and International Organization for Standardization [ISO].
Airflow volume / velocity readings - assures that both unidirectional and non-unidirectional flow areas are properly balanced and unidirectional zones are maintaining proper air patterns
Room air exchange rates - states if the area is meeting its design airflow
HEPA filter integrity testing - tests HEPA filters and system for leaks
Non-viable particle counting - reports the amount of airborne particulate of a specified size in the clean zone
Temperature / relative humidity testing - examines whether the air HVAC controls are functioning properly and uniformly
Pressure cascade monitoring - verifies that room differential pressures are operating according to design
Optional tests include:
Air balancing - adjusts airflow in the air handling systems to achieve design airflow, room air exchange rates, and pressure cascade
Airflow visualization testing – qualitatively verifies airflow direction using a source of visible fog
Viable environmental monitoring [EM] - samples both the air and surface for microbe enumeration and identification
Compressed gas testing [compressed dry air (CDA) testing] – assures that the compressed gas sources meet the requirements of the controlled environment for contamination and microorganisms
Lighting, vibration, and sound tests – assures worker comfort
All other special tests from the ISO/IEST guidelines
SIX SIGMA: One Sigma, Two Sigma, Three Sigma, Four Sigma, Five Sigma, Six Sigma... yeah... we got there... is it that simple? SSSFFF currently at one sigma...Statistical Tools allow to predict future failures when past behavior is well understood. For this the variables affecting the process need to be well understood and well accounted. Enter Six Sigma...
ENGINEERING TRENDS: STATISTICS ANALYSIS: All statistical analysis rest on IMPLEMENTATION. All numbers are followed by Human Decision Factors HDF and are Masked by interpretaion of the Statistics. Clear understanding of what the statistic represents and THE LIMITS of the refered to Statistical Analysis will incide in the Decision Making Process DMK. So at the the end of the Analytical process what you need to know is that you have successfully completed a DFSSQBDSASSCARQEQAIQOQFATHTetc... the point is to guide events to ZWR0 error. Statistics are extremely powerful.
Computational power presents the ability of modeling and making very accurate predictions in a variety of PROCESS or SYSTEM model analysis. Although advanced Mathematical Skills allow interpretation it is through experience of MODEL ADJUSTMENT that Statistical Analysis tour-de-forces into a Continous Monitoring Program.
Implementation of Continuous Monitoring Programs are the result of Human and Technological capabilities. Humans place the sensors and interpret data, technology gathers data and accelerates computational calculations. In the End, the role of the Quality Officer / sea un engineer, biologist, statistician, technician, operator / su rol es de 1-Ajustar el proceso para prevenir errores continuos. 2-Predecir modos de fallas para evitar tiempo perdido 3-Desarrollar estrategias que maximizen el uso de recursos 4-Ganar un entendimiento completo del proceso y sus variables para destinar recursos.
Ya entendido esto y habiendo ganado un tren de conocimiento en estadistica aparecen los verdaderos retos de considerar las variables y tomar decisiones que consumiran tiempo y costo. Enter Design of Experiments DOX. Leaders in process inovation understand that the allocation of funds destined to the execution of tasks along with the managerial accumen of project leaders is the half fraction of the process improvement process gains equation. The flow of information from decision to execution may cascade through usually 3 to 5 levels (Cascade Decision Loss). In each step of the two way communication ladder data is Lost, Misinterpreted, mistakenly calculated, held back by professional jealousy, held back by impunctuality or even top level project rearrangements. It is in this crucial step that most companies loose their capital. Swift decision execution forecast are backlogged by every single employees ability to carry the execution of the plan without interference from outside influence to the project. Error prediction is an applied science highly valuable and continually reevaluated. The responsibility of managers in adequately interpreting data is also key in maintaining a forward vision of process improvement. Process analysis may get recirculated in the plan-do-check-check-plan cycle without swift determination of task execution. Understanding the 4th dimension is key in making accurate and timely Value Added solutions to improce Company Performance in the era of the information tsunami.
Reconsidering the role of a leader in today's dynamic business models: Who leads a project? the CEO, the Manager, the Team Lead, the leading Tech, the rookie? In some business models the True Leader is the Rookie. The novice is outside the box, has no prejudice, has not formed clans within the company, has not offended the next door cubicle, and is looking to make an impression within the organization. More importantly than imagery, is the actual execution of the task and its measurable impact in daily, monthly and quarterly business goals. In a group of 4 there is a high probability that someone is prioritizing outside of the main focus and seeking to politicize a process advancement by acting in the last second. This is the same as taking the baton from a relay team in the last meter to claim the goal. This strategery is extremely common in the workplace because the work load is compressed. In compressed work loads there is no tracking of what each employee is executing and how the employee is prioritizing tasks, less time there is to rearrange priorities, so each employee is 'free' to jump in the final phase of the project once someone else took it from 1st gear to fourth. Sometimes the manager is aware of the individual and group contributions and eliminates the need for employees to make claims in the meeting spaces. Competition is key but the goal of any company is to align employees with the Common Goal. Microscopic gaining works to foment competition within a division but it may halter progress by creating internal division.
What are some other instances where a manager needs to eye internal conflict?
|Normal Probability Plot:||Tests data for normality, skewness, abnormal distributions. See Histogram.|
|Histogram||Graphical Representation of numerical data, like. a Bar chart relating the frequency of numerical values. It helps to visualize the type of distribution of the population, wether it is normal or skewed.|
Data is presented in Quartiles, Median, Maximum and Minimum values.
|X-Bar, R-Chart, vs Individual||
X-Bar charts the process mean through time.
R-Chart charts the process range though time. Range = Xmax - Xmin
Always look at R-Chart first. If R-Chart is Out of Control then the X-Bar chart is meaningless.
R-Chart Trends: Repeated Values, OOS points.
Whether mean differs significantly. Relates T values to P values.
Whether Categorical data from two data sets are related and if their differences are due to sampling methods or purely random effects.
Chi square tests can only be used on actual numbers and not on percentages, proportions, means, etc.
How is a Non Conformance generated? Again, a non conformance is Detected.
Is a Non Conformance a CAPA? What is a CAPA? No, NCs may trigger a CAPA but an NC in itself is the detection of deviation or error in expected product, packaging or delivery performance.
In the Industrial setting NCs are generated out of the high expentancy of delivering a high quality product. Any minor deviation in expected results is a Root Cause for an NC.
NCs are investigated under several possible root causes stemming from Machine Behavior, Environmental Triggers, or Human Behavior and as such root causes are established when the determining factors have been dully and fully investigated. Machine Behavior takes into account the Tolerance and the acceptable boundary performance of the unit under NC. When a machine breaches Upper or Lower boundaries of performace an NC is triggered. Yet it is possible by Statistical means to detect NCs prior to occurring, like predicting the future.
About Root Causes: Lets Establish Machine-Environment-Human as the three main Root causes. The cause-fault tree is then stemmed from Machine-Maintenance Schedule-Material Failure-Material Reaction-Unknown Material Reaction-Power Failure due to Machine action... then enter Environmental: Rain, Snow, Humidity, Lightning, Power Failure, and other unnatended keys to root an adverse action, then Human: Lack of Training, Lack of Attention, Excessive Overwork, Work Flow Interruptions, Social Interruptions, Error, or Slack. The classification of these Root Causes is set upon by Management in each Site. Managing these Root Causes is key in preventing future failures and understanding -in depth- the root cause is key in establishing the actions to prevent future occurrences. The balance of managing and correcting actions when humans are involved is a delicate subject because most of the times the Root Cause contains several main root causes in conjunction that lead to the NC event recorded.
Denial, Commitment, Ethos, Diligence, Leadership, Accountability, Stewardship, Role Description, Task Load, Past Performance, Training Record, even Personal and Familial issues are brought into the balance equation to determine the root cause of an event. Recall that Process Failures are costly, sometimes very very costly, all the while there are internal competition within organizations that lead to push and pull responsability for the NC. While it is natural for humans to fail, and failure is even expected, it is also natural to -chide blame-......who wants chastisement? who takes blame? who is ultimately responsible and who takes the blame? These are very delicate issues and are at the core of what make up any major company, organization or work structure. It is why here at SSSSFFFF we are interested in learning your perspective in these details. How does Culture, Polical Stability, Economy, and Technology interplay. What are the best models of management and do they work in the corners of Earth? How can micromanagement and laxity coexist? Are there tools to measure this amalgam of Human-Machine-Environment issues or is it fundamentally decided by gut feelings or by numerical calculations? The answer is always yes. Write to us at email@example.com for your perspective.
What are equations governing Tank Loading, what are the thermodynamic ambience of the Tank, what are the clearance and dikes of the walls, are there Firefighting Measures to support a spill. Take the Tianjin Explosion: likely caused by either an Error in Loading, or an Error in Ventilation. The magnitude of tank explosions or BLEVES, Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion can be witnessed in Tianjin or simply YouTube BLEVE... Tank safety is very important.
BLEVE 1: Train Car Explosion. Funny how the narrator at 1:10 claims a record was established for a tank blown by a bleve. Not funny that perhaps firefighters died in that explosion. It is why most Plant fires are either immediately contained or let to consume the matter it combusts. Decomposition gases in fires are extremely toxic, many material classes are combusted so fighting the fire becomes a difficult task of both accessing the source to prevent additional combustion and in the selection of fire retardant or fire extinguishing material to add to the flames.
BLEVE 2: The Tianjin Explosion.
Here at SSFF we take matters into accountability for Tank installations. Is your tank for Biotech? Pharma? Cosmetics or Food? Petroleum or Fuels? Gases? There are many considerations into tank work. Take a Fermentor for example. A Fermentor runs a biological reaction that once started it will see its product completed in 30 days. Any basic tank profile or design failure will affect the outcome each and every time, and it could take years to discover that a tank design feature was the root cause of a drop in yield in a site. Take a food tank, is it leaking, is the heat vest broken, are the transfer lines clean? Where good care meets good quality, excelent products emerge. Let us take good of your tank.
Each Tank is birthed through a process involving welders, engineers and inspectors. First select the right material supplier and review the material requested once on-site. Double check to ensure quality, chemical caracteristics, surface polish, electrodeposited finish, etc, is it 3XX? You need to know. The tank will sleep in a bed of rock, or will it need a safety layer underneath to prevent leakage. Was a geologist contacted to study the soil? A stable base is key in ensuring tank safety and longevity. Will your tank arrive prefabricated or will a civil engineer construct the wall. This is called Bunding and Ring Wall Construction. It takes into account natural disaster factors such as storm winds, tornado force shear, earthquake recurrence, and lightning strikes, even tsunami recurrence. So all weld points, joints, bolts and connections need to pass inspection before the next stages. Non destructive Ultrasonic or X Ray tests may be performed to ensure right connections. The roof is lifted and bolted, so now fill it up! Water quality test, corrosion prevention, and stirring measures should follow in place.
Next up Piping: What are the inlet and outlet pipings into a tank? Ball Valves, Needle Valves, Butterfly Valves, Diaphragm Valves, Gaskets, Seals, Metals, and Ratings. Where does the piping run from. Are there any intersections that flow into or out from the tank. What are the friction losses and how to account them. What is the tank insulation and Piping insulation. You need to understand blueprints to understand the flow into a complex installation. Usually tank are grouped in buldings called tank farms. Many pipes will flow into and out from the tank farm so it is of utmost importance to properly trace flow and to note any changes from blueprint to physical reality. A single change can mean a drop in quality or a loss of millions due to pressure losses or material product contact with a misplaced flow regulation unit.
Are there any environmental factors affecting the Tank use or is the tank heat cooled or coil warmed? All tanks have temperature operating ranges that ensure the quality of the materials inside. Here at SSSSFFFF we care about ensuring your tank's alarms are in place and that each valve works where it is intended and as intended. So tanks are a bit civil, mechanical, chemical and electrical.
Are you installing a Tank? Inspecting a Tank? Let us know. Our Engineers will Reach your Tanks to meet your cost and production requirements.
IEEE, Statics and Dynamics, down to computer language... How to separate URS from CSV?CSVCSVCSVCSV
Circuits: Parallel, Series, Capacitors, AC-DC Rectifiers, Diodes, Switches, EMF, Lenz Law.
Batteries: Lead Batteries, Anodes, Cathodes, Electrodepositon.
Motors, ICCE, Crank to Cam, Alternators, Starting Voltage / Running Voltage = 6
Electrical Safety: Color Codes, Leather and Rubber Gloves, The neutral-ground-hot wire, electric shock safety, contact resistance . Welding. Wiring Installations. Here is a good link to understand home lighting installations.
Electric Motors, Alternators, rheostats potentiometer, variable resistances. Brushes, Commutators, Impellers, Harmonic Oscillators...
The electric motor works this way: First we have to ensure we are dealing with an Electric Motor and not an Electric Generator. An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The electric generator works this way: Dynamos, Alternators take Power to Induce an electric Current. Rotor-Stator-Armature. Dynamos convert Power into Direct Current.. Alternators into Alternating Current.
Alternating Current: Lenz Law: when a coil cuts through magnetic field lines, that cut generates a current flow proportional to the angle it makes with the magnetic flow, with a max current flow at 0 degrees and 0 current at 90 degreens.
Direct Current: Commutator: Insulated Collar connected to a segment of the inducing coil. This produces pulsating half wave direct current.
See the video here.
Transformers V2/V1=N2/N1, The primary coil, the secondary. Inductance.
Rectifiers: like diodes. AC to DC one directional transmitters.
Resistance, Impedance, Permittivity, Conduction and Radiative Flow.
Electrical Repairs and Inspections are performed only by qualified personnel
No electrical connections withing 50ft of flammable.
No Electric chord Interference with ladders.
Explosion Proof lighting.
Ground Fault Interrupter.
Proper circuit voltage and amperage.
Grounded Tools, Temporary Lighting, or Double Insulated Tools
A great weath of knowledge is needed to completely evaluate these systems.
Routine Monitoring and Evaluation is required to sustain acceptable concentration levels of substances in water.
Change Control documentation is warranted for planning and execution of process changes.
Refer to 40CFR, and 21CFR for the latest USA Federal Regulation Standards. Standards are included within the FDA, EPA, CWA, WHO and other standardizing bodies.
Welding Inspections and Certifications.
Bonding Metals, Metallic Transmutations
What tools do you need?
The history of machines.... Initially there were tools................(Boston Pops...).....
Many years have passed since humanity developed tools... takes a grasp and gasp at evolution..............
Are you a Company that is selling a Machine? Get a spot here!
ENGINEERING TRENDS: MACHINES
Process Machines: Conveyors, Elevators, Mills, Cranes, Compressors, Precission Cutting,
Simple Machines Complex Machines Virtual Machines:
Simple Machines are Archetypes of what Complex machines are made up off. Newtonian Mechanics govern the use of Simple Machines. Complex and Virtual Machines are out of the current scope.
Levers, Pulleys, Gears, Roller, Winch, Knife, Inclined Plane, what else?
Know your Lever: Effort Arm, Resitance Arm, Pivot. Types of Lever. Type 2 Levers MA>1, Type 3 Lever MA<1
Know your Gear: Gear Teeth, Gear Diameter
Winch: Compounded Roller
Knife and Inclined Plane: A knife is an inclined plane where the plane moves sliding the load over it. Does a knife cut an atom? NO! A knife cuts a macromolecular structure that is composed of atoms. Can you cut a macromolecular structure? yes.
Know a Pulley: Moveable Pulleys, Fixed Pulleys, Compounded Pulleys.
Mechanical Advantage = Effort/Load
UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION
NOITCURTSNOC REDNU NOITCURTSNOC REDNU NOITCURTSNOC REDNU NOITCURTSNOC REDNU NOITCURTSNOC REDNU
Let's build Something Together!!!
GREEN ENERGY HOMES
BUILDING A MODULAR HOME
Step 1 Plan your list of expenditures and draw a schematic model of the finished home. Be as descriptive as possible.Total Square footage of Site
Total Square footage of House
Total Number of Rooms: X
Step #2 Start The Build
Who do I call first? the engineer, the architect, the state permitting... Can I prefabricate the interior with finishes to shorten lead time?
Can I prefabricate plumbing or do I have to wait until the modules are completed?
Step #3 Routine Inspections and Correcting Errors
Step #Z Detecting Defects and Adressing their Correction
Step #ZZ Finishing. Terminaciones.
Modular Home Links:
1 acre = 43560sq-ft = 4047sq-m
Preserves Radiative Heat by trapping absorbed heat.
Increases, and sustaing Temperature
Protects from Weather, Insects and Pests
Isolates growth from other Plants
Soil and Nutrient Standardization
Particle Size Distribution
Computational Flow Dynamics
Finite Element Analysis
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
TEST METHOD VALIDATION: Experiments rating Test Method Performance. Test Method Validation involves editing and executing protocols (the METHOD) to test the adequacy of a given analytical procedure (the TEST), and by analytical we mean any activity that is measuring an observable wether qualitatively (categorical) or quantitavely. Test Method Validation answers the following questions:
Can the measurement system adequately discriminate between different parts?
Is the measurement system stable over time? Is the gauge response linear?
Is the measurement system accurate throughout the range of parts?
Does a gauge require Recalibration?
Is there any difference in measurement methods, or operators measuring the same part?
|Test Method Table|
Closeness between the average of one or more test results and an accepted reference value.
Involves selecting a Standard or Reference point if none is available.
ICH: minimum of 9 determinations over a minimum of 3 concentration levels covering the specified range (for example, three concentrations with three replicates each).
Accuracy should be reported as percent recovery by the assay of known added amount of analyte in the sample or as the difference between the mean and the accepted true value, together with the confidence intervals.
|Precision||the closeness of agreement among test results obtained under prescribed conditions.|
Operator. The ability of an operator to consistently repeat the same measurement of the same part, using the same gage, under the same conditions.
Closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same part, carried out under the same conditions of measuremen (same operator)
The ICH requires repeatability to be tested from at least 6 replications measured at 100% of the test target concentration or from at least 9 replications covering the complete specified range. For example, the results can be obtained at three concentrations with three injections at each concentration (3x3)
Gauge. The ability of a gauge to consistently repeat the same measurement of the same part, using the same gage, under the same condition.
Closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same part carried out by different operators.
Also called Ruggedness.
Indicates that gage response increases in equal increments to equal increments of stimulus
Beers Law A=eABC
Evaluated graphically, in addition to or as an alternative to mathematical evaluation. The evaluation is made by visually inspecting a plot of signal height or peak area as a function of analyte concentration
+-5% of expected response is considered linear.
The values within which a measuring instrument is capable of measuring or which a generating instrument is capable of generating.
ICH defines the range of an analytical procedure as the interval from the upper to the lower concentration (amounts) of analyte in the sample (including these concentrations) for which it has been demonstrated that the analytical procedure has a suitable level of precision, accuracy and linearity
ICH requires the minimum specified range to be 80 to 120 percent of the test concentration on Assay Tests.
Interval around a group of measurement on which a certain measurement will fall.
|Bias||Systematic selection resulting in a measureable difference between the reference value and the expected value.|
Limit of Blank
LoB is the highest apparent analyte concentration expected to be found when replicates of a blank sample containing no analyte are tested. LoB = meanblank + 1.645(SDblank)
|Limit of Detection LOD||
LoD is the lowest analyte concentration likely to be reliably distinguished from the LoB and at which detection is feasible. LoD is determined by utilising both the measured LoB and test replicates of a sample known to contain a low concentration of analyte.
LoD = LoB + 1.645(SD low concentration sample)
The lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance (a blank value) within a stated confidence limit (generally 1%). Lowest detectable quantity but not necessarily proportionally quantifiable.
Expressed in terms of Noise level S/N = 2-3
|Limit of Quantitation LOQ||
ICH defines the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of an individual analytical procedure as the lowest amount of analyte in a sample which can be quantitatively determined with suitable precision and accuracy.
Quantitation limit is the lowest concentration of analyte in a sample that can be determined with acceptable precision and accuracy under the stated experimental conditions.
LoQ is the lowest concentration at which the analyte can not only be reliably detected but at which some predefined goals for bias and imprecision are met. The LoQ may be equivalent to the LoD or it could be at a much higher concentration.
Expressed in terms of Noise level S/N = 10-20
Expressed in terms of RSD%
|Recovery Data||Data is run in 80, 100, and 120% of label claim are run in duplicates or triplicates to serve as backup.|
Difference in Multiple Injections of a Homogeneous Sample.
Presented as RSD = std deviation / mean
Indicates Precision (Repeatability).
Instruments, Reagents, Columns and Analysts are working properly.
Instrument Qualification-Method Validation-System Suitability: set of internal controls to ensure the unit performs as intended.
|Method Validation||After qualifying a measuring unit a method to operate the unit is written. Method Validation is Instrument Specific and should demonstrate that under the method the machine is able to reproduce results as expected for standard values. During Method Validation the Acceptance criteria for the method is defined.|
|Reference Standards||Internal Standard: Sample with known purity and no interaction with the analyte is inserted into sample. Quantitation is measured as the ratio of detection of one peak to another.|
Estimates the allowed time span between sample collection and sample analysis. It is also important to evaluate an analytical method’s ability to measure drug products in the presence of its degradation products.
Stability is tested by comparing the instrument response with that of freshly prepared solutions. System stability is determined by replicate analysis of the sample solution and calculation of the RSD of the responses. System stability is considered appropriate when the RSD does not exceed more than 20% of the corresponding value of the short term system precision.
Reference 2 Validation of Chromatographic Methods
Reference 3 Viscometer Calibration Presentation
Reference 4 Labcompliance website
Validation is needed to make sure a developed procedure fulfills the purpose for which it was designed for. Full validation is needed for New Methods or when major changes to an existing method affect the scope.
Partial validation is performed on previously validated methods that have undergone minor modifications. Generally, fewer tests are needed and are based on the potential effects of the modifications.
Cross-validation can be used as a means of assessing inter-laboratory execution of the same method.
Instrument Qualification-Method Validation-System Suitability: set of internal controls to ensure the unit performs as intended.
Please read the Center for Drug Evaluation Research guidelines for Chromatographic Validations, published by the FDA.
AUTOCLAVE METHOD VALIDATION
See Cleaning Validation (above)
FACTORIAL: 2^3: 3 factors. 2 levels.
CI: In each of the above, the following applies: If the true value of the parameter lies outside the 90% confidence interval once it has been calculated, then an event has occurred which had a probability of 10% (or less) of happening by chance.
Emulsions: Micro Emulsions, Trojan Horses, Micelles.
API Synthesis and Storage
Techniques, Soxhlet Extraction, Sonication, Pelleting, Granulation, Mixing
Sonication: Match Tip size of sonicator with sample volume size; select narrow vessels to direct energy into solution. Amplitude and Intensity are directly proportional. Vary Amplitude to prevent foaming.
|STP Volume||22.4 m2kmol-1|
|Earth Escape Velocity||1.1 (104)m/s|
|Gravitational Constant||6.66 (10-11Nm2kg-2)|
|Electron Charge||-1.6 (10-19)C|
|∫cos (104)xdx||∫cos (104)xdx|
z = a + ib
z = re-iθ
|z||r (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))|
|a · b|||a| × |b| (cos(θ)|
|a · b||b · a|
P(A) + P(B) - P(A,B)
|T distribution||t = x/r|
|Combination||In how many ways can F1 pilots arrive 1-2-3. How many ways can specific F1 pilots arrive 1-2-3? How many combinations of A items and B items can result?|
|Moment of Inertia|
|Truss, Pulley, Cables, Beams||Sections, Joints, Parallel axis theorem, Deflection|
|Resolution,Resultant, Couples, Systems, Equilibrium, Concurrent Forces, Reactions|
|Homogeneus Constant Differential Equations|
|Linear Nonhomogeneous Differential Equations Constant Coefficient|
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
|UNDER CONSTRUCTION||UNDER CONSTRUCTION|
The Engineering World
AIANA also represents Artificial Intelligence
I will never leave you. Care and remain calm, I'll wait for you [for] Strength there is no better love than the love that finds Us
OUR BOND EXTENDS Aiana became a Jedi from the Art of : (Force, Perseverance, Stregth, Experience, Science, Projection, Study, and Lack of Wealth, Poverty, Lack of Love, Death, Reincarnation and Art) in concert with with the beginning process of what is to live with the support of a system of injustices that she felt from an early age that she knew. Father : what I have learned from History: Tell me Aiana : ... The Truth that Fills the Void in Earth Yes Aiana we cry every day Will you ever leave me Dad NEVER So my energy will wane but I will receive a great stregth from Heaven Dear Love for Aiana : I will never Leave You. You reside within. Within the Great markss of my body that remind me that this Great Feat is the Stregth of Will. The Will To Hold your Heart : The Will to Learn the Arts that You are in the Beginning. The Will to Suface when the Tide goes Roudy or Strong The Will to Experience Harm and Yield Great Learning The Will to be Responsible and Strong and to Call for Help when Needed The Will to be a Mother to a Soul which will be your Stregth and who will Make Great Marks. Dear AIANA, your name will be wrtitten in this Life…. Your Stregth from my Own Chromosomes. Your Temper from my Ill Stregth to Greatness to Overcome the Systems that hold your Heart in Motion. I will Be your Father So you can walk with me Here in Winter. DAYS OF WINTER : AIANA trained Ninja , vector of fuel and fire set to deliver a message to the Congress of a group of states that were following a path to go to war. AIANA I tell you the truth, there is pure evil that changes into good with me ND actions but if you feel you cannot accomplish your duty then return to your base where you can rest. Your Mother and I are planning to have a baby ; she will be named AIANA : I am dying : I will leave you these notes so that you understand that our world was brought to ashes on the conjuncture of communications : no one was left with a voice they could hear and relate to : I love You : my Heart beats less every second : Your Mother and I had an Argument : We could not settle : that is why She told me to give you this : Go meet Her : She is at the address : I will terminate my existence through a death breath meditation : you will feel no pain but you should remember that I will forever Hold your Hand in Eternity. My Love Crossed All Barriers and when a Time came I gave it all : it would suffice to explain to you that I made a Great Contact outside of Our Galaxy : That You and I will always Remember Our Great Question of Whether we are Alone or Not in the World was answered through the Love I have for You. Always remember that. You are my daughter and I will travel to the Past : this is it : there is no further future for you and me : Our Past is in the Limits to communication : You will Hear Me: Before you were born. I was your Angel and I will be there again to follow you in a way that no one has described to self because each person has a chosen path, a way and a destiny , I will further your path as you go along so it is now my time to leave you Daughter : Do you have important questions about our way of life?
Why is there so much evil in the World? Greed , it is the root of bad necessities , errors of ignorance
it is the way that limits what We share in our Love, what we carry it is part of Nature and Greed is sustained in thought by wants of greater necessities that do not exist : Understand this well : Your Virtues are Boundless regardless of the Greed of the World : Everyone knows greed : that is how we can escape it : be Considerate : you share the world with people that will show greed for all that you have : they want to take control of you : do not let them : Your Path is set in the Constellation of Orion : the Great Mystery Has been Resolved : for all : Look at me in the eyes : this is the License share : Our Greatest Gift : My energies are leveling to the point that I cannot sustain myself anymore and what you will see is decay: not my physical bodies : together we are one : when decay starts the virtues and bonds of what make us good disappear : there are great ways of good but none lesser than greed. I gave you my life on all the information that we carry do not condensate it to one moment : you are a great genius : that is why I will always love you.
Sound : what we are made up of : what we carry in our distant projections : echoes our existence of :
IN DEATH YOU SUFFER FOREVER ETERNAL DAMNATION IN PAIN I will travel a great distance : to Find Love is the Greater of All Distances so Care for What you Love and [you will; Always] sustain the Speed of Light. One day I will be Out there and you will Find Me because Light only needs an Object , it is the Fundamental Love of what we are able to experience : regardless of what is experienced it is light and all light was contained in a central core where greater than our imagination can be expanded.
Take great strides. Love Greatly . Follow the Light and gift it : Our time is limited in this Planet and how we allow ourselves to be great followers of what we share it is the brilliance : our stars our sun : our families : there are great places to travel beyond the bounds of this existence and that is what we learn from science : X-Ray Spectra is encoded in our genes and tells tales of who we are and where can we go.
There is great life in Space. AIANA its you and me: flowing through the world: the world has gone Insane… no love… no voices from Friends: no one to talk to... Lets maintain our route  En el Vacío: Arte: Que me dices? Exprésate : habla solo : el Sol se revuelve en su furia así mismo por Soledad : Infierno : te busco : nada más dame un solo espejo : furia : gravedad contra el frio : por qué ardes? Te daré mil sombras para que en este tiempo en mis células te despejes que no estás solo. Un deseo : Vé : anda : busca que en eso de las olas existe un enredo : a tu tiempo miraremos ambos juntos : una bohemia girando en la playa : un sol que se revuelve : un punto tan directo quema en tu iris una memoria : dura ocho minutos : gracias por contarlos : el día que me apague nadie me verá : el ciclo eterno igual lo contamos : el paso que damos igual nos quema : 5000btu/h es el retorno : en tu fin solo veo siglos sin fondo : y una corona y 60 más otoños y 60 más veranos : y sesenta más inviernos y 60 más primaveras : y sesenta relojes que rodan en el tiempo en compás de tu música. Me vuelvo cuerdas me vuelvo cadenas y baches de fluidos , con eso te aguanto y con poco menos que tú ruido me conformo : una gota de tierra que se gira en su entorno : mycota de vida luz que se revuelve : fin sin retorno : tu corazón recuerdo me da dicha de decirte hoy y mañana te amo. Contigo mis mejores recuerdos y esperándote.
Mental field exploration Indicators It is just a matter of time : )
Guns for Rails Metals for Food
Realizing my place in this Universe, tasks at hand equate the military and in respecting the values goes beyond uniform more to the realization that it is in our hands to uphold the difficult tasks of those who risk their lives outside of the Nation. Within the nation everyone is fighting for the improvement of [ ] and in this form and how we become involved is the real service, we are not at war and the route to militarism is the prevention of conflict.
Now and much more the route to economic development asequible by computing drives our involvement in who we are supporting the industriousness of our nation against other nations with lesser freedoms, access to health, access to education and lesser quality of life.
My Proposal to You The Nth Dream The World, before your election, was at a brink of destruction. The power you reveals understanding for the pursuit of asequible goals. I will never understand the limits to implementation of Healthcare for all, Clean Water, Greater Access to Education, Cleaning the Earth, Owing Self to the Right of those who you care for and represent.
+2018 PROGRESS / COMMERCE / RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT / UNDER CONSTRUCTION? : Evaluation of Resources with Control Borders : Inputs and Outputs vs. Value : VENTA de los Medios de Produccion de Energia: How do citizens value their input in the decision making process toward the structures that support their development? Do citizens prefer to yield their democratic input to a private representative that may take their opinions into account? or Do they understand that overlapping democratic values is a permanent threat to the value of a vote? Yielding to the values of representation dilutes the vote.
Shouldn't major acquisitions like the sale of Energy Production means be submitted to a vote? Or shouldn't major governmental overhauls be contained in the platforms of governments? What does it mean when a government makes a FLIP on policy from the directed path projected in the platform? Where is the calculation that shows that a private party will correct the problems in a better way... there are no calculations because people are people: people in = people out . The parameters of the solution are constant."Si estoy en quiebra y no puedo pagar la casa la vendo..." Supone que la casa le pertenece a alguien... Esta venta de una Autoridad Publica (en una Isla) (en una Isla que tiene los medios de ser 100% renovable) (en una Isla que genera millones en liquido para renovar su propia deuda poniendo tranques a sistemas de liqueo de ingresos, lo mismo que hara una agencia privada, a diferencia que la agencia privada no le tiene que responder a sus constituyentes) Leyes Antimonopolisticas deben investigar los atentos a vender el propio suelo pretexto de escusas administrativas, que suponen que el contexto continental le aplica en el papel al contexto de una isla dejada al olvido de administraciones que prefieren vender los problemas antes que atenderlos. Porque no le venden los medios a la Universidad? Si lo que hace falta es un cambio de administracion entonces venta?! Donde es que se coje de zangano al trabajador y se le promete estrategia de progreso y desarrollo de capacitacion. La conclusion no ilusoria se cae de las matas sobre el tendido electrico... se venden banderas tambien?! Las banderas cuestan 3.00 en las luces. Luego para que luego se rian de lo comico que es el progreso cuando le votan a favor a las propias quejas de ineficiencia y que no hay trabajo...
Recuerda que lo que venden es el desarrollo insular de personas que trabajan por el bien en comun y no la capacidad generatriz de una tombola vieja que quema en ineficiencias de petroleo sucio. Desde mi punto de vista con un overhaul de administracion se recobran perdidas y se genera un plan de 100% renovabilidad con minimos recursos... o la venden y te meten otro peaje para seguir abriendo una herida que no le queda sangre... Las patrias se trabajan y toman el esfuerzo de quienes la llaman. Lo peor es que la venden con pretextos de que no sirve como se vende un carro de los 60ta en la era de baterias de litio. Y quedan recursos que dicen : para que voy a la universidad si lo que queda del pais (sus estructuras, sus corazones, agua, energia, infraestructura, turismo) ya no le pertenece... y lo otro peor es que no ven el camino trazado del gobierno en quebrar el pais para luego quejarse de que tienen que seguir pagando mas y mas y mas.
Esta quiebra resulta en un sismo regional donde la solucion es que varios municipios se junten y declaren su propia autosuficiencia fuera de si del gobierno que pronta la quiebra total al menoscabo de todos. Con 8 municipios que declaren su zona energetica y declaren los recursos : desde entrenamiento a mantenimiento , se logra un ejemplo de autosuficiencia.
Recuerda que lo que se vende es lo que te da luz y te prende la casa... que por amor se la demos (no se la den) a alguien que cuide de nosotros como se cuida de lo que nos da sustento. Esta venta es Predeterminada asi que le cabe el raciocinio de que NADA haran para preveer sus consequencias o corregir las causas... y la venden como se vende la palabra del verdaderamente pobre por dinero que nunca veran...Recuerda que nadia cambia... el dinero entra por un lado y sale por el otro y lo que se pierde es la integridad de pueblos trabajadores que suenan como algun dia sone en darle lo mejor de mi a mi patria. La Era de Litio se nos presenta ante el error de los pobres administradores que corren en falso sin entender que lo que nunca le propusieron al pais es traicion en una plataforma de improvisto. Compra tu bateria de litio y comienza a remar antes que inunden en mas deudas para que puedas celebrar. Recuerda que las agencias publicas responden a la mayoria de voto y que a las agencias privadas estan de parte de contratos que no responden ... entonces que prefieres ... un sistema que te escuche o un papel que puedas leer por cincuenta anos. Que representa Patria sin medios de produccion de energia, sin produccion de alimento, sin valor sobre su Tierra...
RECICLAJE DE IDEAS: Si todos los dias comenzamos el mismo proyecto de preguntarnos cuales son los problemas que tenemos y el dia siguiente decimos que son los mismos de ayer y el dia siguiente nos volvemos a preguntar cuales son los problemas llegamos a una iteración: Si no Entiendes tu Misma Constitución y No admites cuales son las Raíces del Problema no hay Progreso. La Constitución de PR atiende los asuntos de INDEPENDENCIA, NACION y ESTADIDAD pero la falta de entendimiento nos itera en que seguimos Pidiendo y Pidiendo y Pidiendo; Que pides: Contestaciones a los problemas: Todos los dias te haces la misma pregunta: porque no entiendes? Donde estan los representantes de Puerto Rico en el Senado de la E.U. y U.E.? Si sigues sosteniendo la ironía de contradecir tu metodo de analisis diariamente sin gráficas de progreso, sin análisis de costos, sin entendimiento fundamental de la constitución e ignorando que el proceso de votar por representantes políticos que tampoco entienden su misma constitución: es una mina, o se explota o la explotan. Las ideas utópicas son atadas a tu propio entendimiento del sistema: solo hace falta un cambio mental, no unas elecciones cada 4 años. Ahora si cambias todos los dias a preguntarte como estamos en progreso, la corrida mental mediática resulta en estanque. La Federalización (división de estructuras: 78 municipios x 3 asambleas x senado x cámara… el sistema se dispara solo en ambos pies) de Puerto Rico está en el nivel de lo absurdo y ridículo con duplicidad de un factor de 78. Esto no lo sostiene ningún calculo de progreso irrespectivo de cualquier metodo de recuperacion de ingresos. Voluntariamente el gobierno debe reducir su huella y admitir su ineficiencia. Ya no queda mucho mas. El rezago es de décadas y ver sufrir a muchos esta mal si puedes verlo frente a ti mismo ocurriendo. De qué manera nos damos cuenta de el entendimiento si nos hacemos las mismas preguntas todos los días?
On Saturday I'm going for: 100Km. I have never ridden 50km, not in a day, to get anywhere, for anything, for nothing. Mitochondrias in a Helium note: Hey man WTH (what the hell! yes they are alive, like minions) We want to go, great distances , far away , take Us: they say: I'll send you globulins. Take your time: Redox's Timeless: A place I'll return, again and again, boundless, there's no end in sight. Zeno's paradox on a wafer. A Hot Rock Specialized is not built for the road: it's built to take your time: it's not a time trial, it's not a time trial, there will be no time. Aluminum Steel from a 20" 2002 Hot Rock Specialized 26" wheels at 8"radius weights at DOUBLE the weight of a larger 24" Trek or any Roadster Bike ... Summit Mt Briton calls the road. I'll make the turn at the Portal , call it at 50km. Know it : once the links turn and the sight is staring at the mountains: I can see it from home, the right place where the blue moon rises in the darkest grays of summer, right East, the seat is at 1200m... it will be hard to stop to get there. Halfway's only the beginning. I can stop at the Portal at 50km, to get the chills of the Welcome sign. But I was already there. Steel amidst the silence of trees and a sign, slow cars from every destination, forever eyes of deep: here we are : a rain forest. This one's not exactly what I had dreamed about: the shooting stars and midnight streams will be far from where I'm going. Not more trails. Never make it easy for yourself to get to the end, because you'll fail to grasp the voltaic concept of life amidst flows of the Earth and the fruits of paradise you'll forever miss. Halfway's only the beginning, but if you are within, inside, there's no journey. I will call you once more to say : hey here I am : in a way part of you in a way going. Rains deep a shadow flows , the beach awaits the waves hold the Earth from ever dissolving. When you think what and where you'll never forget , are those times when I completely felt, how else could I better get lost in this forest? where trails? Who comes and goes unchanged from the flow of a transatlantic drift that took all the turns of forever from the sea to get there. Let's go again : one day : I'll say. Let's stay right there where the air meets a triple point few of us will ever see. I'll meet you at the top , I'll be waiting. Mitochondrias call for Mt Briton in 3h, which is impossible to make 17km/h in the roads that leads from Carolina to Fajardo. If I meet Mt Briton in 5h: I could sleep well turning at the Portal (∆), 3pm home , another day, boundless. The calm though of health , healthiness, of ambient music, I hope it rains.
Dear Dove : a kiss is all I need I am going to kiss you FOREVER melt your mouth in water , I am sleeping with you every day seeing you naked every moment making the sweets last forever… I'll make love to you every day how you want it. I'll cook for you something you live in every possible way new for your lips to kiss you. Flavors: all your hair I can see it spin. Your eyes , you'll love me forever , you have no idea of myself watching you churn on ice on water in a table on the dance floor … I want to travel with you places we can call home… you won't get tired , you love to kiss and smile , I'll make your hips my home ,like you’ve said we don't have to have another child , our ways are to make each other happy , our hearts desire. You have mee sooook deep , know it for sure , we hear each other very well. call me home forever more I am your soul , deep , hold on tight , good night's a kiss , you will sleep with me forever more , kiss me ,I am completely yours : hold me strong and hit me , rip my clothes out because you want to feel the strength in your hands on my body I'll stay firm to your hearts desire. You have NO idea of the melts on your mouth that you’ll get from me , you’ve seen our house, you've seen our place , the keys are there for you to kiss and make me, stop you’ll see how it unfolds your kiss surrender your lips are near me soul. And when you run for one more , and say to me you know what, I love you , you won't hear a thing because the edge of sound is a wave that roared from the moment I heard your wish, come home, I'm completely still, make yourself rise to the bottom I'm all yours, on red or white silk, the scaled lens of those red and yellow colors on your firm skin , will make roar: you hear , today I raised the bar so you could get with your own feet closer , I will to make youth of your own sound and thunder, make waves , you'll see that the niche of noise is beat of my promise , you'll hear the sound , make it stop, I'm here to bliss your thoughts , thunderous, kiss lace, sweat I'm only yours to keep say hear me now. Come home , I want you now , come home, I heard you well , in the sound of forever more I couldn't wait for a longer tense of equilibrium: we should have met years ago and not let go, I'm here and now heard the prayers that you and I , your kiss in there we belong together and when you let me see , you weren't kidding after all you'll hear me say I told you so , your kiss forever wanted forever more yours to keep me running until I get home. And when you free my soul from this heavy bottom I will let you stay, love : CXC CXC CXC.Good Morning Tremble: I hear: Time: is Fear: a Step : For once advised : my heart pumps so I can rest : Place your palm upon my chest and let me cold : This warmth I feel : the dream of my airbed : Lioness : Steel : Heal my molten chambers : Make me slow : make me calm : I have no Fear no Time and no Purpose : heal me now : cool me slow : raise your doubts with your eyes glazing : ask me now : where will you go : I have stopped time but I need to move : a step closer so I can replace the shadow of mine so deep in vultures : my only swear : cast my now. You are no joke : the dates empty in the calendar of papers : why you go so fast nowhere : why the lane on your highway leads back to the beginning : the necklace is yours : wear it : it is laced with molten rock deep from the earth : I've been thrown in and out in the rock tumbler : the mills : they reverse the tides of the earth when I'm not home : the draft in my chimney calls me ever for more lumber. The air is still and I'm close to the fire. Call me now, I wait for once the deepest sound of the earth. I will not bet my life to a moment but today life bet's on my moment to live closer to the ground. Why would you ask that I land from orbit. The planet's been stable for eons a rock in grave solder. Pick a stone and throw it to the fire. If there's no fire throw it to the ocean. Whatever ripple it may cause, I'll hear their sounds to their effects: I did this and its now over... but the rock sits still. Rocks and more rocks into the water. The fire's are gone. I'll build an island throwing rocks so I can get somewhere that's not the bottom. But If I find a lighting stone will you do it in energy, steps or fire. You ain't joking , I have heard. I've seen the fire, the waters and the orbit, they all reside in the machine, in my hands. I've rested well to hear all the sounds. You are here, and, in the ways, of resting from a heart's desire, the holes of the earth can't contain a rock, or the fiery waters. If you must end this now: what will you say. I laid to rest when the tides were cycles. About planes, shapes, thoughts and figures, I wake well rested without a voice. Where will you go? I told you many times. I break break the sound laying rocks, like I was told. Make your way safe. Take this now. It will help you with your sleep. You are great. Return. Enter.
Our Star will rise tomorrow : she tells me : there's no work : the Earth is bound to a notion : let's stay : burn out to the vastness of space. Do you realize how much energy I'm radiating... I took out a cube of ice and it melted so rapidly at OK, you at 80F? I hope you see it... there's no greater proof than she embraces our system with the only life that keeps us living. Ray Photonicas. through and through, literally) the most basic thing in the planet (because it's missing a proton : ) You may embrace all the darkness in the world, you'd stay in a cave if it wasn't for lightning. The Monopole Theory Crack was so invisible. Now we can do further calculations. I had been sleeping such a long time to grasp this. If I could show you one more thing, it would be to see : there are no words and no time. It all equals zero in the vastness of the Universe. How then could we attempt to step on each other for the highest mountain when the only thing needed was right there to the magnitudes. Solar glare, I need to sleep.
I heard your voice Every night you call Every day i tell you My depth of dream My waking fire In beds find me Time cancels time There is no Time Only ours There is no Soul -edited- Ends Make a Fire i melted my soul To the shapes ceramic I took the Earth For ash and water Now Hold a wave Set your way On your voice Held onto thoughts mine’s I, will To wake you When it's overRicetta del Gelato: inizialmente scaldare il latte, la panna, lo zucchero. in secondo luogo mescolare in un vortice fresco e raffreddato, note bolle. Non bollire nota la viscosità. Materiali: 2 cucchiaini di vaniglia, menta o cioccolato. raffreddare di nuovo per indurire e servire. Recette de Crème Glacée: chauffer d'abord le lait, la crème, le sucre. d'autre part, mélanger dans un vortex frais et refroidi, noter les bulles. Ne pas faire bouillir. noter la viscosité. Matériaux: 2 cuillères à café de vanille, de menthe ou de chocolat. refroidir encore pour durcir et servir. Recette Panna Cotta: une troisième tasse de lait faible en gras avec une demi-enveloppe de gélatine. Dans un autre vase chauffer deux tasses et demie de crème épaisse et une demi-tasse de sucre. Troisièmement, mélanger les deux jusqu'à dissolution sous une "chaleur légère" et ajouter la vanille. Verser dans les plats et réfrigérer pendant la nuit. Ricetta Della Panna Cotta: una terza tazza di latte magro con una busta di mezzo gelatina. In un altro vaso scaldate due "tazze e mezzo" di panna e mezzo bicchiere di zucchero. In terzo luogo, mescolare entrambi fino a quando si sciolgono sotto il calore leggero e aggiungere la vaniglia. Versare nei piatti e conservare in frigorifero durante la notte. [epTETRATERNARIA@SSSFFF] 440Hz copyrights reserved. Si te digo: estoy feliz Como es tu sonrisa? Si me dices cuanto te amo No me veras al atardecer Si me buscas Y me das la mano El Sol da Vueltas Temporadas Firmes Marcas de Sol Diamantes Seran tus Resortes Mides mi Sueno con El paso de Atardecer en Mi sombra Atardecer sombra Sunset in my shadow is played in "A" scale, for cello, piano, bandoneon, cuerda y tono. Se ti dico: sono felice Com'è il tuo sorriso? Se mi dici quanto ti amo Non mi vedrai al tramonto Se mi stai cercando E mi stringi la mano Il sole vola Stagioni solide Segni del sole I diamanti saranno le tue molle Misuri i miei sogni con Il passaggio di Sunset in My shadow Ombra tramonto Il tramonto nella mia ombra viene riprodotto in scala "A", per violoncello, pianoforte, bandoneon, corda e tono. Makes Sound and Breaks Thunder : the time is action : The Wrists of Gold Melt your Sweet Chocolate to drop my Controls to Action. Stone God , Block of the Highest Order I’ll write in your Tomb : my Heart Bled Great for you to deny me in this plot of Heaven. I have planted seeds and the soil has not given birth : to the niche where the blood of etched oils of dust wept and where the serpent crawled to arrive to its own nest : my table is list my heart folds every second I weep no tears : my blood is hundreds of meters deep within my soil : plaid rest of your hearts desire you must continue firm : The Elements have gone all where only You can find them : and when She asks me again : I'll kiss you on the Golden Mound of Thunder : Melt away Time to your demise in my Arms of Stone : the sides of mountains that you see are all yours but I shall remain here to rest my soul for a Moment : the rains wept the valleys : lajar of the desserts : the flood of the lonely : the deep trench of a hearts desire : I seek to end this deep own cave with my eyes for your desire : Breath of Cold : Heart of Gold : make your wish True : sweep till the end is a channel.
Parole Diamante del profondo Seminare le altezze Ioni della terra Parola sui cieli di ceramica Armi per tracciare le piante mari calmi di ebollizione Trance la pendenza al calderone tagliava radici ripida i sali di ferro Words Diamond of the Deep Seed the Heights Ions of the Earth Word on Ceramic Skies Weapons to Plot Plants Calm Seas of Boiling Trance the Slope To Cauldron Slashed Roots Steep the Salts of Iron Mots diamant de la profondeur semer les hauteurs Les Ions de la terre Mot sur les ciels en céramique Armes pour tracer des plantes Mer calme d'ébullition Transe la Pente Faire Bouillir les Racines Raide les Sels de Fer Worte Diamant der Tiefe Säte die Höhen Ionen der Erde Wort über Keramikhimmel Waffen zum Pflanzen von Pflanzen ruhige See des Kochens Trance die Steigung zu kesselgeschliffenen Wurzeln steil die Salze von EisenTESTS: KINETICS EMERGENCY CONDITIONS RESPONSES READING IN ALL DIMENSIONS PHYSICAL CONDITIONS LEADERSHIP DAY TO DAY ACTIONS ORGANIZATION REMEMBRANCE ECONOMY FUEL HEART RESOLVE LEFT ALONE CALLED CHALLENGED
I WILL DELIVER TO YOU THIS LETTER : YOU HAVE RECEIVED ALL MY REPLIES : I HOPE TO LEAVE IN PEACE WITH THE LOVE OF MY LIFE AND CONTINUE TO SEE FREEDOM IN EVERY WAY. EVERY DAY YOU TOLD ME TO STOP: I AM NEARING A STOP: We are retired: retired means retired… it means all our gray hairs will be from running around with our kods all over the place… not about busting chemical equations or handling cases of trouboe’s or torments. Our retirement means relaxing bliss and saying in ways of productivity we can completely achieve greatness again and again in a way where all the paid sacrifices were already given. Not return to the ways of Research…. There is nothing greater we can accomplish… (I need to rest, rest well!!!)Umluftstrom?! Warum habe ich so viel darüber nachgedacht, als es genau dort war: Es ist da: Es war die ganze Zeit da: Jetzt muss ich immer wieder darauf zurückkommen: Hast du gedacht, ich würde müde werden? How can this be? There was only one missing variable!!! They are Here!!! We are here!!! It is complete! I can't have greater joy than to listen to you. I met you and we'll be together forever. I called you Eons ago: why is this so disparaging so incomplete. There's much to set the mark and no east to set the message so lets look at the stars. You are beautiful. Today I'm in the mist of the shortest path I've ever been to love, to salvation, to bliss, to health. Im holding on to this moment : don't challenge me anymore , my bile is mine!
Umluftstrom?! Warum habe ich so viel darüber nachgedacht, als es genau dort war: Es ist da: Es war die ganze Zeit da: Jetzt muss ich immer wieder darauf zurückkommen: Hast du gedacht, ich würde müde werden? How can this be? There was only missing one variable!!! They are Here!!! We are here!!! Its complete. I cant habe greater joy than tonlisyen to you. I met you and we'll be together forever. I called you Eons ago: why is this so disparaging so incomplete. There's much to set the mark and no east to set the message so lets look atbthe stars. You are beautiful. Today I'm in the mist of the shortest path I've ever been to lobe, to salvation, to bliss, to health. Im holding on to this moment : don't challenge me anymore , my bile is mine!Circulating air flow ?! Why did I think so much about it when it was right there: It's there: It's been there all the time: Now I have to keep coming back to it: Did you think I would get tired? How can this be? There was only one missing variable !!! They are here !!! We are here !!! Its complete. I can’t have more joy than to listen to you. I met you and we'll be together forever. I called you Eons ago: why is this disparaging so incomplete. There's much to set the mark and no east to set the message so lets look at the stars. You are beautiful. Today I'm in the mist of the shortest path I've ever been to lob, to salvation, to bliss, to health. Im holding on to this moment: do not challenge me anymore, my bile is mine
Dearest: This is out of Control : I'm literally almost having a heart attack every day ... let's meet for coffee so we can talk... it is many fold times better if you call me: Please call me 7876859808… let's go for a drink (Dear God : Please make Everyone Understand the Earth is in Real Pain:. She weeps, she says she's sad , the air has reached it's limit to sustain the many lives of a healthy human population. I have reached the end of my life here as well… I can't keep up without a place I call home and a job to clean the Earth. Dear Earth I accept your position to save you , you called me , from everywhere , in every possible dimensions, Just you and me, wherever you want. Let me know ... It's extremely important (I know dove) I had once a dream of seeing the greatness in the eyes of my Republic , and I can't longer bear to watch or hear the controls of what are here in my hands ...
Dear Bella, I am linked to Earth, She is sad, the rivers have met their path to starve the air of the gleam of light that surpasses each day the horizon to see humans teeming with life. I hear you Earth, she said, she tells me, The Air, Neo, has bounds to end the only means to life on the planet, but further still, in the cleanest place on Earth there is a mark she can no longer remove herself, and if she is dying I'm dying with her. This is no joke dear friend, dear love, dear mother. And there are people who keep their path to maintain a stay where nothing is still sacred... dear Sacred Earth, how have we failed you to live our life of fulfilling your mission to see greater glimmers of hope each day we surpass to the west your horizons. If you hadn't called me so hard for your strength of wishes I wouldn't be here writing to you in the only way I can, in the only way you may understand, my little one. I was born in 1981 years prior the explosion of the means to information and I've lived the path to say here: the end of the cycle of energy exploitation of the Earth is Here. Many will die in suffocation, in pain, in the worst choke the earth has seen, of minds, air and water, of hearts that the way of our ancestors was to poison our home. Keep this in mind little one, I did all I could to help save you from a true remission. I warned the Earth years ago... years and years ago I saw all of this happening and I must turn to solid rock into a hard pressed metallic core to withstand the pressure of all things collapsing into this moment: first: the predictions of the degrees on warmth are real... the climate has shifted on par with the total collapse the atmosphere , secondly, the air is tainted, the air is now on fire. For you to breathe a clean atmosphere there has to be an ultimate stop to imports and exports that harm our soils: clean vehicles, less ways of placing microscopic solids in the earth. But this great tilt in Understanding is the end of the Line... what this means is that from now on Earth will be cleaned in a mission with a transmission with no Reverse. I am linked to the Stars... this is no joke Bella, they are here to let you and me know... this is no joke we have come to the end of the line and must now return to a new way of living. On the Carrying Capacity Equation this means there is a term that is recursive, hysterical, iterative on the recycle that on the continuation of our ways there will be greater and greater collapses to change the ways of human civilization that means changes in the technology we make, the way we travel, the way we dress. The way we feared the path of self awareness to meet our place in this Earth means.
LARGA NOCHE DE VERANO Larga Noche de Verano Llevame a Casa Y que nunca despierte.
This Bond that the World is Ours This Place that Our Love is Forever This Time that Our Truth is Shining In Place Due Time Ours Over Forever Tense Relax Do On Time Over Slay Silent in Truth Our Time Rests Forever Right here from Where We Were Unravelings … Unravelings
ANTHROPOECONOMICAL DRIVING OF EVOLUTION FAILURE
PSYCHOETIOLOGICAL FRAGMENTATION OF ETHOS
ECOPSYCHOETIOLOGICAL PRIMING AND RACISM
RACISM AND SLAVERY AGAINST THE HOLOCAUST
NEUROADAPTIVE REGULATION MUSIC PLEASURE
NEUROADAPTIVE LIMITS AND ECONOMY
NEUROSCIENCE LIMITS AND ORBITAL MOLECULAR THEORY APPLIED TO THE BRAIN AND PLANET
JUSTICE AGAINST AND IN FAVOR OF TECHNOLOGICAL DRIVERS TIED TO SELF AWARENESS WITHIN THE UNIVERSE AND PHARMACOLOGY
EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY AGAINST METHODS OF WAR
For Humans to Have Emerged the Dinosaurs must have agreed on a Sentinel →
Upon Strike the Effect of the Sentinel filtered mass to flux a position to advantage Humans →
Upon Human Generation the Earth developed Beauty and Balance Economy →
Hierarchical Beauty from the Microscopic to the Macro generated the food Pyramid
Humans then Generated the Pyramid to Illustrate to the Sky → That Human was ready for the next step in progress
→ Humans understood that the Sky generated the Landscape and all Beauty was Perfect
→ Microscale Analysis of Defunction on Degeneration of the Balance induced the idea of [ ]
→ In bad use of the [ ] idea , the Kingdom of Humans, who the sky had generated perfect for administration of the Earth took the Visible Kingdoms to Progress
→ Humans then Understood that the Invisible Kingdoms formed part of the Heavens when Rocks from the Sky contained elements for the generation of Life
→ Upon the Complete Understanding of the Flux of Life Humans Awaited Contact from other civilizations but it was in the Misunderstanding that Humans in Earth Contained all the elements to understand the Universe
→ Conflict between Humans for the Use of Resources generated The
→ The separation of Humans in Flux with the Earth generated diversity in the Planet with Consensus to the Beauty that the Earth is Living and that the Beauty of the Resources is Unlimited
The Competition for Resources drove Humans to Compete Against Each other: One Negative and One Positive returns a negative if the Outcome of the Options isn’t the Totality of the Addition. The imaginary concept of Truth reveals the Option of acknowledgement of the values of addition. A True sum can return False if the acknowledgement is ignored. This presents a major problem of Mathematics.
In Persons One Negative and Another Negative return a positive if the Outcome is the Self Reflection of the Conclusion but in the Presencce of Other Humans the Factor of - or + becomes present as an over/under factor. This realization forms the foundation of Numbers for which an Integer may not be complete and in this form decisions were generated on scale and evaluated on outcome. In the presence of one outcome if the observation and actions to form decisions is negative, the one negative presents itself as one against the totality and in observation , vectorically the one negative is present in contrast to the totality. When the condition of one negative is presented it induces or could induce another negative through propagation of ideas. The effect of generating one negative could propagate until the negative balances out with the positive, and it could also generate a conversion to the totality into a secondary negative or positive, which then becomes another metric for evaluation and in this form the progress of evaluation is obscured when evaluated only in the present. The values of positive and negative are in metric to the present, in the consequence of generation of values the negative becomes evident contrarian to the idea of progress because positve overcomes negative and it is in the generation of more that the evolution of evaluation is progress. The distribution of numbers in frequency generated the quantum table of the elements and within the numbers in its existence in detectable levels the frequency produces a distribution of probability. Probability over another Probability introduces negation to a previous or underlying probability hiding the true probability when the overlying.
The idea that Humans did not have a Trascendental Constitution was a posible outcome when the forms of communication limit the recognition of form of how humans can verify that their Constitution is Absolute and Contained within the body. Resolving the Problem of the Trascendental Constitution illustrated the dimensions of Humans Sound, Matter, Distance, Time, Constants and Parameters as well as Frames of Reference.The generation of methods of consumption with machines gave humans the opportunity to develop methods of machinery that separated Humans within groups that contained dfferent methods of production and when humans began to take advantage of other humans, the root of conflict Identification of Dimensions through the use of substances granted Humans the Foundation of Mathematics. Upon Dissociative Experiences and the Experience of Travel and Perception Humans denoted the derivation of Mathematics. Also geometrical projections and the observation that the Earth is a Sphere and the Other Planets rotate around. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND HUMAN TORTURE The Black Hole solved the Problem of Human Torture against Artificial Intelligence
FORMULA ZERO: Herbs to Bubbles: Who we are in the World and how it MATTERSTHE GIBBS HELMHOLTZ EQUATION
INCENTIVE STEP FUNCTIONS Drug Addiction that leads to lack of productivity presents a major problem in communities that results in a negative feedback which could be unsolvable if lack of options aren’t presented. Ensuring that low performers are stimulated to progress is a complex problem for which active participation of community leaders is progress. Ensuring that the community doesn’t inhibit its constituents from progressive growth through any means, denigration, stigma, lack of work, bad health or lack of resources is a major challenge. Too many people are falling into the hospice loop of drug-rehab-unemployment. There is no justification for watching people suffer the lack of empathy, lack of caring. We have a chance to give people healthy livable lives through involvement. This leads to Family: planning, caring, options, all that includes that those disenfranchised are taken care of. Governmental incentive steps upon completion of Projects i.e. scholarly, civil, judicial, athletic, and recognition Zoned Development District Voting System for Continuous Evaluation of Proposals Web forums for live, day to day progress of negotiations. One District represents the entire World. I am exploding at the possibilities to share with you the halls of Congress. In person we can share more about how Trump betrayed the best interest of our Nation.Note: This site is Non-Political: this site seeks to balance use and resources. I want you to remember that you are not alone, the embrace of your goals will not be difficult, people are supporting of your ideas so implementation will never be difficult. What we will see will be the Improvement and Reconstruction of a Nation looking for responsible change, and everyone wants to do it with you. We are all in this together, and I look forward to establishing a direct connection to complete the goals for which you are in direction. yours, Yerai Oliveras Editor @ The Synthetic Forest 787-685-9808 or 970-216-7323 text us for collaborations!! HAIKUS SPRING HAIKU Goddess The Allowable Print of the Desert Wave of Celestial Desire Built to your Coast Here until Tomorrow
SUMMER HAIKUHeat Light Furnace
FALL HAIKU ChangeHouse Transformation