What to Eat, What not to Eat.

When to Eat and When not to Eat.

Best references and best Nutritional Consultants Here.

For all your needs inside the SSFF.

What is Healthy?


Inside the SSFF 2014 you will find the best Nutrients for all your exercise needs.

SSSFFF is guided by scientific and empirical methods that will drive your performance needs to new heights.


The Body is a Machine. The Mind (Esprit 念頭 मन Разум) is a Synthetic Forest. Your body is a Chemical Site.

Next time you stop to put gas in your vehicle make sure you've counted essential Ions, not only Essential Amino Acids.

Get Ready: you are about to encounter a New Source of Energy here...

Return to Site Menu

Lets start off Creating a couple of Chararacters to develop some dietary programs for these fictional people:

1- Mr. A: Works 50 hours a week. Has 2 children. Wakes up at 6:00am. Goes to sleep at 12:00pm. Drinks socially but does not smoke.

2- Mrs. A: Works 50 hours a week. Has no children. is Asthmatic.

3- Mr. B: Is a grandfather. Retired. Has been inactive in regular athletic activities for 2 years or more. Has diabetes, and heart problems

4- Mr. C: Works 40 hours a week drinks, and smokes. No preexisting condition.

5- Ms. C: High school athlete. Practices sports 3 to 5 days a week.

6- Mr D: Professional Athlete seeking strength over endurance.

7- Mrs D: Professional Athlete seeking endurance over strength.

8- Mr. E: Bodybuilder non-competitive.

9- Mrs. E. Bodybuilder competitive.

10- Mr. F: Student.


FIRST NOTEDietary Requirements for 1 through 10

Nutrient Type Origin Recommended Dose Source Benefits
Vitamin A Vitamin Group of Organic Compounds  


Retinyl Palmitate to Retinol

Growth, Development, Eye Functions
Vitamin B Vitamin Group of Organic Compounds  




Cell Metabolism
Vitamin C Vitamin L-Ascorbate 100mg - 300mg Ascorbic Acid, Tomato, Chili Peppers, Bell Peppers, Green Peppers...

Enzyme Co Factor

Prevents Scurvy


Food Additive

Vitamin D Vitamin Fat Soluble Steroids   UV + 7-dehydrocholesterol

Calcium Balance


Prevents Rickets: Osteomalacia

Vitamin E Vitamin Fat Soluble 7-20 mg/day


Wheats, Oils, Fruits


Gene Expression

Skin Tone



Vitamin K Vitamin Fat Soluble Organic Compounds of variable Isoprenoid Chain Length   Kale, Spinach, Mustard, Asparagus

Coagulation Primarily

Calcium Binding

Folic Acid Vitamin Vitamin B

400 mcg

(.5-20mcg stored)


DNA repair and Methylation

Co Factor

Salts Salt Salts are Ionic Bonds ? Salts

Stimulation of Neuronal Activity


Protein Stability

Carbohydrates Sugars   ? Sugars  
Fats Fats   ? Fats  
Co Factors Co Factors   ? Co Factors  
Water See below   ? See below





Potassium Potassium Iodide        
Iron Ferric Orthophosphate        
Zinc Zinc Sulfate        
Chloride Choline Chloride        
Selenium Sodium Selenate        

Pantothenic Acid

Niacin Niacinamide        
Oils Palmitate        

Cupric Sulfate

Manganese Sulfate

Carbonates Calcium Carbonate        
Sugars Sucralose        
Acids Ascorbic Acid        


Return to Site Menu


SECOND NOTE Types of Workout Routines for 1 - 10

  Base Level Ramp Up Level Rest Level / wk Goal
1 Isolation vs Total Body Workout Weekly Ramp Up cycle after 4 weeks. 2-3 days 8hours of sustained 2x heart rate = Calorie Consumption to match calorie intake.
2 Isolation vs Total Body Workout   2 days Increase Oxygenation efficiency. Improve Lung Capacity.
3 Osteoporosis, Tissue Breakdown prevention Daily Ramp up to max 2 days

Prevent Muscle and Bone Clastification

Stimulate hormonal sythesis

4 Increase CardioPulmonary Level. Increase Muscle Mass.   4 Maintain balanced caloric input/output
5 Muscle Growth and Muscle Development At same Mass, increase yield by increasing REPS. 2-3 days per week. Match Slow to Fast Muscle Response to Sport.
6 Deep Muscle strength Anabolic Growth 2 days per week

Power = FXD

Efficiency = Wout/Win

7 Develop Muscle Memory, Sustained cellular response at optimum level.

Anabolic / Catabolic Balance

Trials at optimum level to chart dietary requirements.

1 day per week or less

Power = FXD

Speed = dd/dt

Sustained 80% yield over time increase.

8 Sustain CardioPulmonary Level. Prevent Muscle Breakdow   1.5 Increased Muscle Mass and Tone
9 Sustain CardioPulmonary Level. Prevent Muscle Breakdow   1.5  
10 Sustain CardioPulmonary Level. Prevent Muscle Breakdown. No Overwork 3-4 days per week Improved Circulation


Return to Site Menu



How much water should you ingest? Should you ingest water during Exercise? Should you ingest water prior to exercise?

Water is a small molecule that bonds to itself, making a larger molecule by virtue of interaction. Water interacts with most substances because it is dipolar. Make it H-OH, or write it H-O-H, or write it +/- +H-O-H+ there is an interesting interaction of water with all that lives. Protonation changes the Amino Acids into Acidic or Basic Form. So water loss creates a large interaction in your body with amino acids, evidently during exercise a bit of water helps and an excess of water creates weight. So there is an OPTIMAL amount of water that can be ingested.

Count all food as .60 water. Recall WATER IS FOOD!!! when you drink water After exercise, you digest the breakdown of Storaged Fats and Sugars by the Process of GLUCOLYSIS. We'll Explore GLUCOLYSIS In-Depth in THE SYNTHETIC FOREST< Glucolysis.

Take 2.5 Liters of Water as the Average recommended intake. Is this good? First calculate your body volume...... get ready to mop the floor... fill in your tub with a known amount of water in Liters. take your time. mark the high water level. Then get in, completely, you will need a large container if you don't fit completely in the tub. Mark the high mark and get out. This is the volume of water lost and the difference is your body's volume. Divide 2.5 by your body volume....

2.5/X = fraction of water per total body volume... Enter Body Volume Index or BVI. write it down and forget it. At the moment you don't need to calculate this unless you are D type or plus.

Essential AA at SSSFFF  

Polar uncharged amino acids Hydrophilic

(Serine, Threonine, Glutamine, Asparagine, Tyrosine, Cysteine)

Form hydrogen bonds


Cystein can form covalent disulfide bonds

Proline has a unique structure and causes kinks in the protein chain


The nonpolar amino acids

(Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Proline)

Hydrophobic and are usually found in the center of the protein.

They are also found in proteins which are associated with cell membranes.


Electrically charged amino acids. Charged.

Aspartic Acid, Glutate, Lysine, Arginine, and Histidine

Electrical properties that can change depending on the pH

Essential AminoAcids F V T W M L I K H
Dispensable A D N E S
Conditional RCGQPY

Between 10-40 mg/kg

Amount of water per AA ?
Net Protein Utilization ?
Protein Digestability Score ?
Feed Conversion ?
Available Value ?
Metrics for Ingestion

Measure by performance... measure by recuperation... measure by tape.... measure by ingestion... measure by development over time...




Are you a professional athlete in your 60's? write to us at


Return to Site Menu

Synthetic Forest 2019 MMXIX All copyrights reserved.


Meal Morning 0600 Mid Morning 1045 Lunch 1330

Lunch Snack




Dinner Snack


Total Water

Total Calories

1Cal = 4.2Joules

1 food calorie = 1 kCal


Heat Lost x

Mass Gained x Performance Factor


Cereal + Fruit ?

Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts


Bottled Liquid Meal


Coffee Bottled Liquid Meal




Bottled Liquid Meal 2.5L







Cereal + Fruit ?

Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts

Bottled Liquid Meal Tea





Rice and Beans


Bottled Liquid Meal  




Cereal + Fruit ?

Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts

Bottled Liquid Meal Coffee  




Bottled Liquid Meal 2.5L



4 Yogurt

















5 Cereal + Fruit ?      










6 Cereal + Fruit ?        




7 Cereal + Fruit ?      







8 Cereal + Fruit ?        







9 Eggs (2) + 3 slices of bacon dried + 2 Wheat Toasts   Salmon + Rice + Spinach   Protein + Carbohydrates + Vegetables















Bottled Liquid Meal


Bottled Liquid Meal


Fast Food?


Bottled Liquid Meal


Fast Food?


Bottled Liquid Meal










FOURTH NOTE: WHAT do World Athletes Eat?: Here's what a Bodybuilder eats for ....

Arnold Schwarzenneger Workout

Michael Phelps Workout

Serena Williams Workout

Triathlon: Ironman Triathlon: 1-1.5h Swimming + 120miles in the Bike + 1.5hours at 11minute/mile..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................?

Triathlon Training

Are you interested in Training for Sport? write to us at

So whithout entering the realm of Optimization for Humans.... soon... OPTIMIZATION and RECOVERY...finished?


Return to Site Menu


FOURTH NOTEPERFORMANCE METRICS: Linear Progression vs Exponential Growth: What is the natural progession of improvement: Understand the ... Exponential phase, Linear Development, and Saturation....Maximal.... Just like Saturation Kinetics.... Recall your body is made up of Proteins.



Return to Site Menu



Call your doctor... Rhabdomyolisis... Your body is auto destroying... When to rest and when to over rest...


What is Overwork .... 10 miles, 100 miles, 300 pounds... what are the risks? How many Heart Attacks can you survive?

FATIGUE: First answer the question: Have you













THE SYNTHETIC FOREST FOOD AND WINE REVIEW: anything you can eat withing the forest... What is not a Forest?

THE SYNTHETIC FOREST FOOD AND WINE REVIEW: anything you can eat withing the forest... What is not a Forest?

THE SYNTHETIC FOREST FOOD AND WINE REVIEW: anything you can eat withing the forest... What is not a Forest?

Food and Wine Tips, Techniques and Recipes, here at SSSFFF.

Obtenir les meilleurs conseils, d'informations, de la nourriture, des ustensiles de cuisine et les techniques ici au SSSFFF.

Hae paras neuvo, info, ruoka, keittiövälineet ja tekniikoita täällä SSSFFF.

Take a look at our World Cuisine Links.

SSSFFF will review any Restaurant, Dinner, Lunch Box, Cart, or a la Carte. Do you seek a review of your restaurant? Write to us at

Read Below our Food and Wine Guide: Now, Are you Hungry, are you Thirsty? // SSSSFFFF will branch all world cooking into a single place.

World Measurements Conversions // International Flavors // Food Chemistry // Food Science // Cuisine Engineering.

These are All the Measurements you Need...

Measurements Table
1Cup 237 ml 2 Cups 8Oz
1Quart 946 ml    
1Gal 3.785L    
Jigger   1.25Oz 1Oz-2Oz
1Tbsp   3Teaspoons  
1Oz (s) 28g 4Tbsp  
1Pound 454g 1lbm 16Oz

Some conversions were omitted to represent simple cooking measuring utensils. For calculations we'll build another table.

Meat Temperatures SSSSSFFFFF

Temperature (F)

Beef Rare 140
Beef Medium 160
Beef Well 170
Turkey 180
Chicken 180
Lamb 145
Octopus 130
Shrimp 130
Conch Pressure Cook


Region Country Type

Links / Recipes











Sashimi: Pierced Body


Rice Bowls


Canadian Acadian French

Eastern Canada

Central Canadia

Western Canadian

Smorgasbord and Julbord

North American

Bourbon & Creole

Soul Food

Native American



Brisket a la BBQ: Brisket Rub Ingredients:

Rub Recipe 1:

  • 1/2 cup/120 mL brown sugar
  • 1/3 cup/80 mL salt (sea or kosher)
  • 1/3 cup/80 mL paprika
  • 1/3 cup/80 mL chilli powder
  • 1/3 cup/80 mL ground black pepper

More Rub Recipes Here: Rub Recipes

Apple Pie

Eggs Benedict::

  • 8 pieces of bacon or 4 pieces of Canadian bacon
  • 2 tablespoons chopped parsley, for garnish
  • 4 eggs
  • 2 teaspoons white or rice vinegar
  • 2 English muffins
  • Butter

Hollandaise Sause

10 Tbsp unsalted butter

  • 3 egg yolks
  • 1 Tbsp lemon juice
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • Dash of cayenne or tabasco

Jumbalaya: “holy trinity” of Cajun/Creole cooking — bell peppers, celery and onion. chicken, andouille sausage, and, shrimp,  crushed tomatoes, broth, seasonings, and rice, and stir continuously.  Cover and let it simmer on medium-low for 30 minutes, until the rice is cooked.

Central American



El Salvador


Costa Rican






Plantillas de Maiz







Viviendo la receta guatemala

South American



Chilean and Argentinian




Valle Cauca



Pico de Gallo

Bandeja Paisa








Linguini a la Pesto Sauce: garlic, 2 cups of greens (basil, parseley, romero), 1/2 cups pine nuts, olive oil, 4garlic cloves, 1/2 cup olive oil, for 1pound of linguini pasta. If you don't have pine nuts available use a bit of nutmeg.

Gnochi de Yuca.

Notes on Pasta.

Tomato Sauce @ Home




West Indies

Puerto Rican



St Thomas

St Kitts

St Vincent


St Thomas

St John

St Croix

Water Island

Jost Van Dke


Virgin Goda



Sain Martin

Sant Barthelemy

SabaSint Eustatus

Saint Kitts



Antigua RedonaMontsettat

La Desirade

Iles de Saintes

Marie Galante



Postres: Arroz con Dulce

Lechon Asado: Top Secret recipe: add olive oil, salt, ground black pepper, cumin, culantro, fresh recao, and mix as a paste. The key in making a buen Lechon Asao is to tajar el lechon bien tajao. Also be sure to marinate the pernil in salt and water at least one full day. Use a regular brine concentration. Avoid any citrics or sweets in this recipe. Broil and then lower heat. The Lechon takes a long time to cook evenly, and is generally eaten above medium well, to well done. If you marinate and season the Lechon properly the meat will not end up dry. Promise!

Pasteles de Yuca: Pasteles is a broad technique of enveloping foods in a root mash mix. In mexico a corn paste is used to make tamales. In the caribbean platanos, yucca, name, yautia, and batata , the common roots are blended in different proportions and stuffed with any meat. Many variations add acid olives, peppers, sweet raisins, or chickpeas. The key to the pasteles artistry is the enveloping and wrap-tying in platano leaves. Pasteles are tied in pairs called yuntas and take 30-40 minutes to boil in high. PLEASE DON'T ADD KETCHUP. It is a common disagreement between pasteles lovers to include the ketchup. I know you'll agree in the purest form of this great dish.


Cortes de Carne Caribenhos: Pernil, Churrasco, Chuletas.

Fricase de Conejo

El Mofongo Perfecto: Has probado dos mofongos perfectos? Altamente probable que se hallan hecho con detalles diferentes. Mantequilla vs Aceite de oliva, Frito vs Hervido, Con ajo o con chicharron... hay variedad en el mofongo al igual que en el platano. Proximo: como hacer el mofongo perfecto....

Que es verdaderamente caribenho sin una SALSA:

Aqui comenzamos a experimentar con bases de salsa. La primera: Salsa dulce-picante de Mango:

4 ajos, 1/2 cebolla, 1/4 barra de mantequilla, 2cdas de limon, 1/2 cda de rayadura de limon, 2cdas de cilantrillo. Mezclar bien en una licuadora. Puedes anadir para variar trozos de gengibre o licuar con vino blanco. Decora con rayadura de limon, cayenne o zanahorias. Sirve a mas de 6 personas. Usala como dip, marinado, o salsa base. Que la disfrutes.

Sustituir Salsa de Tomate por Pasta de Tomate?






Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa

India is extremely large and its cuisine is a broad spectrum from vegetarian to coastal with English , Muslim, Portuguese and Endemic Influences. SSFF will name a couple of spices and dishes you should at least try many times.

Ingredients: saffron, pured nuts, coconut, curry, Naan bread, nargisi kaftas (meatballs), biryani ( layered rice and meat), rogan josh...Dosa (rice pancakes), Idli (steamed rice cakes), Many different types of Chutney (chutney is an Indian version of sofrito/sauce in latin countries. sort of a base flavor composed of many spices).

Plates and Recipes:

dry-cooked Kebab (Tandoori Jhinga, Chicken Tandoori, Shami Kebab, Seekh Kebab, Paneer Tikka, Tandoori Aloo, Murgh Malai Kebab)

Dal Bukhara (creamy black bean soup)

deep-fried foods (Samosa, Pakora)

Papad (a round toasted paste made of dried-beans and spices)

Gajar Halwa (Carrot Cake) and Kheer (Rice pudding).

Vegan and Vegetarian    

Turmeric Rice

1.5 cups of rice, 2 tsp turmeric, 2 garlic cloves, 1/2 yellow onion, 2 inches of ginger, 2 cups of vegetable broth per cup of rice, 2 tbsp of oil. 5 inches of carrot natural antiseptic and antibacterial agent anti-inflammatory, anti arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis detoxifies the liver; shown to be affective in fighting Alzheimer’s ; natural painkiller

- may help in weight management; used to treat depression; used to treat multiple cancers

- antioxidant; can be used as a Saffron substitute

Arroz Verde: Many latin countries have this recipe involving the green spices of tropical caribbean cuisine. Green color is brought about cilantro, perejil, romero, oregano, and spinach. This rice's green hue can be from light to very heavy green. Here's a recipe:

per 3 cups of rice, use two handfuls of cilantro and two other of perejil, add a tablespoon or two of romero (slight green and bitter hint) add 3 garlic heads and half an onion into a blender. Boil rice as you would but substitute water for broth. Add 3 tablespoons of olive oil in the blender and blend until a watery paste results. Add the paste to the rice when cooking and be sure to mix as the greens float. In the end it would be necessary to mix the green layer up top. SSFF takes more than 40 minutes to set the rice. The longer you let the rice set at low heat the looser the grain will be. Serves 8-15 persons. Enjoy.

Comercial Blends

Ball Park Food




Take 8 pounds of carne molida. 2 cans of beer. Put in a bowl and cover the entire surface of the bowl with a salt pepper mix, visibly cover. Add the beer and mix with your hands. Add 1/2 an onion per pound of meat OR add onion until the meat mix is visibly constituted with onion. Take a full ramo de cilantrillo and cut in small pieces, not too small. You can leave the cilantrillo in leave sized size. Mix by hand. Marinate in the beer for 1 full day. During this time the meat will absorb all the juice you add to it. So if you would like add another beer or until you start seeing meat to separate in its consistency. Before cooking, remove all juice. Add 2 eggs to the meat and mix by hand. Then enjoy the best burguers you'll ever enjoy.

Alter the recipe by adding 1 tbs of red pepper per pound. Also add more culantro, peppers, recao, even spinach, romero and lemongrass to taste, to make a green burguer. Serve with two couple of cups red wine and a glass of water.
Iberian Peninsula




Aragonese and Navarra





Bacalao... recuerda desalinarlo mediante remoje en agua o hirviendo en agua. Guarda un poco del agua para la salsa.

Paella: Valenciana, de Carne, de Mariscos...

Diferencias en la Cocina Portuguesa y Espanola

Pastas   Global Pastas

Pastas may have been communicated through cultural trips from earlier than 13th century Chinese to the Italians to the World. Below are several simple recipes to enjoy your pasta:

French Onion Pasta: Medium Shells, 300ml french Onion Consome, 1 cup of diced peppers, 4 garlic heads, 3 leaves of oregano brujo, 1/2 onion or 3 small shallots,

Italian Italian Italian

Tomato Sauce:

800g tomatoes or ripe fresh fruit
2 tbsp olive oil
1 small onion, finely chopped
2 garlic cloves, crushed
1 tsp sugar
Dash of red-wine vinegar
3 stems of fresh basil
Extra-virgin oil, to serve

Boil tomatoes for a minute, until the skins split. Peel skin, then chop.

Heat the oil in a medium saucepan on a medium-low heat and add the chopped onion. Soften onions until translucent. Stir in the garlic and cook for another two minutes.

Tip in the tomatoes, and break up with a wooden spoon if necessary, then add the sugar, vinegar and the STEMS of the basil, reserving the leaves. Season.

Bring to a simmer, then turn down the heat and simmer for 45 minutes, stirring occasionally, until thick. Test the seasoning, add the basil leaves, roughly torn, and drizzle in a little extra-virgin olive oil if you like before serving.

French Mediterranean  

To go: Panini, Baguette

French Onion Soup: 1/2 cup unsalted butter, 4 sliced onions, 4 garlic cloves, 4 bay leaves, fresh chopped oregano, salt and pepper to taste, 1 cup of red wine, 3-4 tablespoons of flour, 2 quarts of beef broth, Gruyere optional.

Greek Greek Olive Oil, Citrics, Harina

Lemon Basil Shrimp and Pasta

Turkish Turkish Turkish

Baklava, Menemen, Kuzu Tandır, Pide

Ayran, Raki , Salep,

Tavuk (Chicken Breast Dessert!), Lamacun

Kosher Kosher Kosher

Kosher recipes:

What is Kosher?

Islamic and Arab






Sesame, Azafran, Curcuma, Garlic, Curry

Cinamon, Pickels, Onion, Citrics

Hummus: [16oz of garbanzos, 1.5 tablespoons tahini, 3-5 tablespoons of lemon juice (1-2 lemons), 1/2 tablespoons salt, 2 tablespoons olive oil, 1-2 tablespoons chipped cilantrillo. 2 garlic heads, 1/4 cup of water or garbanzo liquid.] Blend all ingredients until texture is heavy creamy. Dress with chili pepper and olive oil, cilantro and chopped onions, sparkle with lemon juice to taste.








are you in the African Continent? Write to us @

We would like to learn ways to make African dishes.


Russian Salad (Olivier)

Borscht (Beet and Cabbage Soup)

Blini (pancakes)

Shashlik (pincho)

Pirozkhi (hot pocket)






  SSSFFF is looking for an intro into Scandinavian food. Write to US!

Return Home

Return Home

Return Home



Fermented Millet

Fermented Rice

Fermented Grape

Fermented Sorghum



Write to us to understand the current trends in Chinese Cuisine @

What are Chinese Flavors, Spices?




Pearl Sake

Black Tea

Canadian Acadian French
North American



Samuel Adams

SSSFFF is looking into Reviewing Microbrews from all over!


Central American





Costa Rican



Salsa Mole negro, rojo, poblano




South American















West Indies

Puerto Rican


Rum, Rum, Rum, RUM

New: Caribbean Craft Beers

Pina Colada: 2part Bacardi, 1part Coconut Cream, 3parts Pineaple juice.1 cup of ice per 6 oz of mix. The viscosity of the mix can be lowered with added ice. Texture and feel can be changed with ice quantity. Most people enjoy Pina Colada between a frozen and a daiquiri, in that sweet middle spot. Normally the Coconut Cream comes in a 1.75 cup can. So use 6 oz of Pineaple juice. Add the Bacardi for flavor. 2oz


Indian Vodka, Indian Whiskey,

Sura, Meraya, Majja


Comercial Blends

Ball Park Food



Where's the best Ballpark Beer?

Where are the best streets to hang out out after a game?

Special Drinking Events

Get a sausage, put it in the oven with 1/2 a tsp of oil and peppers. Wait till the sausage sizzles... take out. put in a bun and indulge.

Iberian Peninsula



North to South



White Sangria Recipe

White Sangria is just that - sangria made with white wine instead of red wine. It is a style of sangria with a ton of flavor and a much cleaner palette than the red version.


  • 1 1/4 cups of water
  • 1 cup of of fresh mint leaves
  • 1/2 cup of sugar
  • 2 sticks of cinnamon
  • 3 1/2 cups of dry white wine, such as an Albarino
  • 2 peaches, pitted and thinly sliced
  • 2 pears, cored and cut into chunks
  • 2 oranges, thinly sliced into rounds
  • 2 lemons, thinly sliced into rounds
  • 3 cups of sparkling apple cider


  1. Combine the water, mint leaves, sugar and cinnamon in a small saucepan. Bring it to a boil over medium heat.
  2. Reduce the heat and simmer for ten minutes. Remove the pan from the heat, and allow it to cool down.
  3. Strain out the mint leaves and cinnamon sticks.
  4. Transfer the remaining mixture to a large bowl, and add the wine and peaches, pears, oranges and lemons.
  5. Mix everything together, and refrigerate the drink until it's chilled. Just before serving, mix in the apple cider.
  6. Serve the drink in rocks glasses with ice.

Tinto de Verano Recipe

Tinto de verano translates to "red wine of summer". This drink is served throughout Spain during the long, hot summers. While it is similar to sangria, it has less alcohol; this makes it a much better drink to sip while sitting in the sun.


  • 2 cups of dry red wine, such as Rioja
  • 2 cups of lemon-lime soda
  • 4 lemon slices


  1. Mix together all of ingredients in a pitcher with ice.
  2. Serve the drink in tall glasses filled with ice, and garnish them with more lemon slices.




Mediterranean Vin du Region
Mediterranean Greek  






Diples + Loukomades





Mango Jam:


·         10 sweet  mangoes

·         1kg sugar

·         1l liter of water

·         2 packets of vanilla sugar

·         1 tsp of cinnamon powder


Cut the skin of mango, cut into small pieces and crush them in a food processor.In a saucepan, add water, sugar and the mango puree.  Stir and simmer over low heat, stirring occasionally for 30 minutes.

Then reduce the heat to low and let it simmer until the cooking water evaporates completely (45min).  Then add the vanilla sugar or cinnamon.

Let it cool down completely and put in glass jars and refrigerate for your daily use to breakfast or spread your cakes, pancakes, etc.




  Black Russian




Blue Smurf




Egg Coffee

Spice List





Pimienta Negra





Sage / Salvia




Cinnamon / Canela

Basil / Albahaca

Capers / Alcaparra

Allspice / Pimienta Gorda

Anise / Anís

Bay Leaves / Laurel

Chamomile / Manzanilla

Caraway / Alcaravea

Chives / Cebolleta

Chervil / Cerafolio

Peppermint / Menta

Poppyseed / Adormidera

Rosemary / Romero

Saffron / Azafrán

Savory / Saturega

Sesame Seed / Ajonjolí

Spearmint / Yerba Buena

Tarragon / Estragón

Thyme / Tomillo

Tumeric / Cúrcuma

Vanilla / Vanilla

Wintermint / Axocopaque?

Ginger / Jengibre

Marjoram / Mejorano

Mustard / Mostaza

Nutmeg / Nuez Moscada

Onion / Cebolla

Oregano / Orégano

Paprika / Pimentón

Parsley / Perejil

Cardamom / Cardamomo

Cloves / Clavo

Comfrey / Confrey

Coriander / Cilantro

Cumin / Comino

Dill / Eneldo

Fennel / Hinojo

Fleur de Sel

Kosher Salt

Grain Salt

SPICE MIX TREND 1: Olive Oil + Garlic + Black Pepper + Onion + Oregano. Substitute Salvia for Oregano....

SPICE MIX TREND 2: Ginger + Olive Oil



SPICE MIX TREND 99: Write to us at

SPICE TIP: SUGAR SENSORS sugar sensors in our mouths detect glucose The intestinal glucose sensor, located in our sweet-sensitive taste cells, is triggered by sodium, which alerts the cell to register sweetness.

SPICE TIP: HUMIDITY: Increase in Humidity means the salt may contain higher concentrations of Magnesium, Calcium, Nutrients. Fleur de sel.

SPICE TIP: BOIL and STRAIN: Flaking for Fleur de Sel

Return Home

Return Home

Return Home

Tr Mi
Food and Drink Recipes
SOUP Onion Soup Take olive oil, butter, and heat until mixed. Cut 6 sweet onions and 4 garlic heads into Julienne cut and place in pot. Add salt and pepper, cook until onions are turn transparent. Add 3 tbsp of wheat flour to make a roux. Add 2 Liters of beef broth (substitute a cup of broth with white wine) to pot and top with rosemary, oregano, cebollines, any of your choice of herbals. Cook 25-30 minutes covered at low heat. Taste onions to ensure they are well cooked. Grouyere optional. Serve with wheat toasts.


Absinthe (45%- 72% Alcohol)

Bacardi 151 (75.5% Alcohol)

Devil Springs Vodka (80% Alcohol)

Pincer Vodka (88.8% Alcohol)

 Bruichladdich X4+1 Quadrupled whisky (92% Alcohol)

Everclear (75% Alcohol)

Spirytus Rektyfikowany (96% Alcohol)








Alien Brain Hemorrhage

If you think the idea of severe brain injury sounds like a good way to start the weekend, then you’ll love the Alien Brain Hemorrhage! It’s even worse than a regular, old, human brain hemorrhage, because it’s from space! And we know, because of science.

1 oz. Peach Schnapps
1/2 oz. Irish Cream
2 Drops of Grenadine

Pour the peach schnapps into a shot glass. Layer the Irish cream on top. Finally, add the drops of grenadine to the center of the drink, until it passes through the cream. Voila!


Lava Flow

1 ounce coconut syrup
2 ounces pineapple juice
1 1/2 ounces rum
Splash vanilla ice milk (or ice cream)
1/2 cup ice
1 1/2 ounces strawberry puree

Blend all ingredients except strawberry puree. Pour into a cocktail glass and garnish with strawberry puree.


The American Flag

1/2 oz. Grenadine
1/2 oz. Crème de Cacao (White)
1/2 oz. Blue Curacao

In layers, pour the grenadine then the crème de cacao and finally the blue curacao into a cordial glass.


The Jellyfish

The Jellyfish looks like a stinger of a shot! Fear not, dear reader. The Jellyfish goes down like, well, jelly! But without the fish. That’s good news! And it’s quite a looker! The blend of electric red and white is something to be admired. Slam one down!

1/2 oz. Crème de Cacao (White)
1/2 oz. Amaretto
1/2 oz. Irish Cream
3 Drops of Grenadine

Pour in layers the white Crème de Cacao then the amaretto and finally the Irish cream in a shot glass. Add 3 drops of grenadine in the center of the shot.


The 747

Khalua, Frangelico, Baileys... almost an Orgasm...

1/2 oz. Coffee Liqueur
1/2 oz. Hazelnut Liqueur
1/2 oz. Irish Cream

Pour in layers: #1 Coffee liqueur #2Hazelnut liqueur #3 Irish cream.



SAKE: Como hacer SAKE

Notes on Fermentation

Beer, Brewing Carbonation, Maturation, Sinking and Topping, Top vs Bottom vs Cold vs Hot Fermentation

Top Bacteria Strains. soon @ SSSFFF

Pasta Shapes

Bowtie pasta exists solely to escape from whatever eating utensil you are using, plop down on a plate, and throw a single red dot of sauce onto your otherwise clean shirt.

Because bowtie pasta is a f*** turbo d+++ of the highest magnitude. You can't even stab it to death because it will just slide all over the place such like a William Nilly and in the end you will scoop it up in the manner of our cave-ridden ancestors and glomp it down angrily before you realize everyone is staring at you and your labored breathing, rage boiling beneath your surface

like so many bowties. accessed on 10/12/2015

Pizza Pizza Dough

Do you have any good tips in making the Pizza Dough? Write to Us.


Fetuccini Alfredo


Fetuccini Alfredo Melt butter in a medium, non-stick saucepan over medium heat. Add cream cheese and garlic powder, stirring with wire whisk until smooth. Add milk, a little at a time, whisking to smooth out lumps. Stir in Parmesan and pepper.
Brisket Brisket

Falda o Pecho de Res

Al Horno

2 tablespoons chili powder
2 tablespoons salt
1 tablespoon garlic powder
1 tablespoon onion powder
1 tablespoon ground black pepper
1 tablespoon sugar
2 teaspoons dry mustard
1 bay leaf, crushed
4 pounds beef brisket, trimmed
1 1/2 cups beef stock

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.

Make a dry rub by combining chili powder, salt, garlic and onion powders, black pepper, sugar, dry mustard, and bay leaf. Season the raw brisket on both sides with the rub. Place in a roasting pan and roast, uncovered, for 1 hour. Add beef stock and enough water to yield about 1/2 inch of liquid in the roasting pan. Lower oven to 300 degrees F, cover pan tightly and continue cooking for 3 hours, or until fork-tender.Trim the fat and slice meat thinly across the grain. Top with juice from the pan

Read more at:

SSSFFF Shrimp SSSFFF Shrimp Shrimp a la SSSFFF: 1 bar of butter, 1 bag of shrimp (aprox 30-40), 2 onions finely superchopped, a half head of garlic finely shopped.; add butter on high heat, add onions first, wait 2 minutes, add shrimps, wait 3 minutes add garlic, wait 0 minutes, add a spoon of wheat powder to specify-espesar la salsa, reduce sauce until visibly thick... mystery ingredient, Alcohol, add wine or heavy rum, 3 tablespoons, finally add any green spices, can be any of your choice fresh. Serves 4-6 over pastas, white rice, layered potatoes, inside a fritter or as tapas. Mixes with Lager beer, Dry white wines, Lemonade (second mistery ingredient: cut the yellow lemon/lime crust, and add while sauce is reducing, this will aid in reducing the butter). Shrimp a la SSSSSFFFFF... Let us know! Send us a pic of your version of this simple recipe. Write to us at, Hub of Science Culture and Technology.
Shrimps Scampi  


  • 1 pound large (16-20 count) raw shrimp, shelled* and de-veined, (if you want, keep the tail on for an attractive presentation)
  • 2 Tbsp olive oil
  • 2-3 Tbsp butter
  • Salt
  • 3-4 garlic cloves, slivered, or 1 Tbsp minced garlic
  • 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon red pepper flakes (less or more to taste)
  • 1/2 cup white wine (I recommend a dry white wine such as a Sauvignon Blanc)
  • 2 tablespoons finely chopped parsley
  • Freshly ground black pepper to taste
  • 1 Tbsp lemon juice

* Shell on? or Shell off? It's really up to you. Shrimp cooked shell on are more flavorful because the shells infuse more flavor into the shrimp while they cook. But, shell-on is fussier to eat. If you remove the shells before cooking the shrimp, you can save them for making shellfish stock.

 Heat a sauté pan on high heat then reduce to medium high heat. Swirl the butter and olive oil into the pan. After the butter melts it will foam up a bit then subside. If using unsalted butter, sprinkle a little salt in the pan. Stir in the slivered garlic and red pepper flakes.

Sauté the garlic for just a minute, until it begins to brown at the edges, then add the shrimp. Add the wine and stir to coat the shrimp with the sauce of butter, oil, and wine. Move the shrimp so they are in an even layer in the pan. Increase the heat to high and boil the wine for two to three minutes.

Stir the shrimp and arrange them so that you turn them over to cook on the other side. Continue to cook on high heat for another minute.

Remove the pan from the heat. Sprinkle the shrimp with parsley, lemon juice, and black pepper, and toss to combine.

Serve as is, or with crusty bread, over pasta, or over rice (for gluten-free version).


SSSSFFFF has some serious Salmon Recipes


Lemon Marinade:
Servings: 1 to 2
Prep time: 10 min.
Marination time: 15–30 min.

  • 1 lb (450 g) salmon fillets
  • 1 lemon or 2 limes
  • 2 tbsp.(30 mL) olive oil
  • 1/2 tsp (2.5 mL) dried thyme,or three sprigs fresh thyme

Soy Sauce Marinade:
Servings: about 2
Prep time:30 min.
Marination time:30–60 min.

  • 1 lb (450 g) salmon fillets
  • 1/4 cup (60 mL) olive oil
  • 3 tbsp (45 mL) soy sauce
  • 2 garlic cloves, finely chopped or pressed
  • 3 scallions, finely chopped
  • 1 tbsp (15 mL) fresh ginger, peeled and finely chopped
  • 2 tbsp (30 mL) honey
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) soy sauce
  • 1/2 tsp (2.5 mL) Sriracha, or more to taste

Servings: About 6
Prep time: 10 min.
Marination time: 24–72 hours

  • 26 oz (750 g) fresh salmon fillets (with skin)
  • 3¼ oz (85 g) sugar
  • 4 oz (120 g) salt
  • 8 tbsp (120 mL) chopped dill
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) crushed white pepper


  • 3 tbsp (45 mL) Swedish or German mustard
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) Dijon mustard
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) sugar
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) vinegar
  • salt to taste
  • white pepper to taste
  • 6 tbsp (90 mL) canola or rapeseed oil




Pulpo y Calamares. What are the best ways to cook Pulpo?

Grilled Octopus with Ancho Chile Sauce

PREPARE THE OCTOPUS Preheat the oven to 300°. In a large enameled cast-iron casserole, heat the olive oil. Add half of the octopus and cook over moderately high heat, turning, until lightly browned all over, 3 to 5 minutes. Transfer to a plate. Repeat with the remaining octopus.

Add the shallots and garlic to the casserole and cook over moderate heat, stirring, until lightly browned, about 2 minutes. Add the pimentón and cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 20 seconds. Carefully add the sherry and bring to a boil. Return the octopus to the casserole, cover and braise in the oven until very tender, about 1 hour and 30 minutes. Let the octopus cool completely in the liquid.

MEANWHILE, MAKE THE SAUCE In a medium saucepan, toast the chiles over moderate heat, turning, until fragrant and pliable, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the vinegar, honey and garlic and bring just to a simmer. Remove from the heat and let stand until the chiles are softened, about 20 minutes. Transfer to 
a blender and puree until smooth. With the machine on, gradually add the grapeseed oil until incorporated. Season the ancho chile sauce with salt.

Light a grill or preheat a grill pan and brush with canola oil. Grill the octopus over high heat, turning, until lightly charred all over, about 4 minutes. Transfer to a baking sheet and immediately brush with some of the ancho chile sauce. Serve with the jicama salad, passing the remaining sauce at the table.






1 libra de almejas o un poco más (25 almejas aproximadamente.)

3oz. de chorizo

½ taza de vino seco blanco

2 cucharadas de aceite de oliva

1 cebolla blanca

6 dientes de ajo

2 cds cilantrillo

Sazon de sal y pimienta.

Temperatura mediana alta sofria en orden de espesor: cebolla, ajo. Cocer cebolla y ajo a gusto. El orden de sofreir es importante ya que la variabilidad del sabor entre ajo y cebolla y otros vegetales es grande ya que el calor y el aceite liberan mucho el sabor o si se sofrie poco se puede obtener un sabor mas natural del ingrediente. Tradicionalmente el ajo se sofrie hasta rostizar y lograr la carbonizacion del ajo que le anade caracter al sabor. Añade el chorizo y mueve todos los ingredientes para que la sazón del chorizo se incorpore bien.  Sofríe por unos 5 minutos más. Por último agrega el vino y mezcla mientras esperas unos minutos hasta que el olor fuerte a alcohol pase (Reduccion ~2 minutos). Aqui puedes espesar la salsa con una cda de mantequilla. Echa las almejas y revuelvelas 1 vez y las tapas por varios minutos hasta que empiecen a abrir. Luego agrega el cilantro, sal y pimienta y muévelas de nuevo. Decorar.




Carrucho al escabeche:


1lb de carrucho hervido(45mints)cortado en
4 cucharaditas de vinagre
4 cucharaditas de jugo de limón
1/4 taza de aceite de oliva
2 dientes de ajo
1 cebolla mediana picadita
1/2 pimiento verde picadito
1/2 cucharadita de sal
8 ó 10 aceitunas rellenas
1 cucharada de alcaparras

En un molde profundo de cristal y con tapa, vierte el carrucho. Une todos los ingredientes y vierte sobre el carrucho.Tápalo bien y ponlo en la nevera. Para que coja bien el sabor, es preferible hacerlo el día anterior al que se vaya a servir.




Hamburguers   100 hamburger recipes, soon! SSSFFF, hungry?
  Stuffed Mushroom Burguer
  Oak Burn Chili Burguer
  Salmon Burguer
  Bacon, and Egg Hamburguer
  Double Burguer with Onion Rings
Hamburguer Toppings  

Anything you can fit between a bun is considered a topping.

Eggs, Jalapeno, Onions, Peppers, Mustard, Sesame Seeds, Lettuce, then experiment with sweet and salty mix, add peanut butter or jelly and give your burger a bright cool twist.

Sushi Rice    
White Rice   Perfect White Rice: 1cup of water per cup of rice. It doesn't matter if the rice is long grain or short. The important detail is that water is covering the level of rice. Bring water to a vigorous boil, add salt 2tbs or to taste. Add the rice and let boil. Watch the rice water level. When the water level starts to disappear and you see pores in the rice (convection pores), immediately lower the heat and cover. THE TRICK IS IN LEAVING THE RICE STILL FOR AS LONG AS YOU CAN WITHHOLD EATING. The longer you cook the rice Lo mas suelto lo ecuentras. Que lo disfrutes.

Arroz Guisado

Arroz al Curry

Arroz con Almendras

Arroz al Coco

Arroz con Limon y Cilantro


There are many different ways to make rice. Guisado or sauted, with Coconut or Curry, Green rice with cilantro, sage, or thyme or any other green spice. The trick with these recipes is to make the sauce or add the ingredient in the key moment.

Arroz Guisado: Create the sauce and then add rice.

Arroz con Almendras: Crunch the Almonds and add before simmering.

Arroz con Coco: Add the coconut milk at the end of the simmering time, mix by hand and let simmer for more time.

Arron con Limon: the Lemon can be added before simmering or during the simmering. The longer the lemon stands with rice the more acid the lemon flavor will be. You can add the lemon in the end of the simmering time and cover the pan to simply aromatize the rice. Otherwise lemon flavor will sink in the rice and give it a straight acidic cut.


Red Beans

Black Beans

Pinto Beans

Pink Beans


Cebolla, Ajo, Pimientos, Cilantrillo y Recao, Salsa de Tomate y Caldo de Pollo, Zanahorias o Papas... en menos de 30 minutos... ahhh y un splash de vino blanco a lo ultimo. enjoy.

Hey would you like to sponsor this part of the Review? let us know at

Lechon Asado   Salt, Pepper, Oregano, Culantro, Achiote, Olive Oil, Lemon juice, Laurel Leaves... at 450 for a loooong time. Write to us if you want the inner details in making a good one.
Pollo Asado  

Sabes cortar un Pollo? Te orientamos rapido. Haz una incision entre el muslo estirado y la pechuga de pollo. esta incision es para separar el muslo del la cadera.. Hazla en ambos lados. El pollo no debe punzarce antes de cocinar. Cocina el pollo y cuando este cocido sacalo del horno. Corta por el mismo corte anterior hasta separar el ala y muslo de la cadera. Toma el pollo por el roto del centro y estiralo lo mas que puedas. Te daras cuenta que si cortas transversalmente en ese plano podras separar las dos pechugas de los muslos y las caderas. (debo incluir fotos). Terminaras con "el pecho" en un lado y las caderas en el otro. Para picar las pechugas ten un cuchillo bien afilado y corta hasta el hueso por el mismo centro. (aqui me detengo para una aclaracion... es como todo animal, tiene hueso en el pecho protejiendo los organos. Hago la aclaracion porque, confesamos, hemos comido miles de pechugas sin saber como se obtienen). No debe ser sorpresa, ahora, picar la pechuga. Aunque quede asimetrica se podra comer.

Comparte tus tecnicas de picar el pollo con nosotros. Escribenos a


Si, Sr., hay que freir el platano dos veces. Majarlo y luego cubrir con ajo...

hay miles de recetas... hacer mofongo es un Arte! comparte tus recetas de hacer mofongo en:


2 latas de Hummus. Tahini, limon, cilantrillo, pimienta cayenne, aceite de oliva: mezclas todo y ya'. Sirve con un toque de limon. Proporciona a gusto. Es asi de facil. Hummus dura no mas de 3 a 4 dias en la nevera.

SSFF is interested in finding alternative recipes of Hummus. Please write to us at

Kabab   Lamb, Chicken, Veal, Pork, Beef...

A section Completely dedicated to the exploration of Tea flavors and Health Benefits.

Lemon Tea

Ginger Tea

Rosemary Tea :





While there are infinite ways of making Sangria, there are certainly only a good number of ways of making it.

We'll give you some basic tips to make the best sangria for most paladar tastes. Not extremely sweet, and enticingly intoxicating punch.

SSSFFF   Wines, Juices, Soda Water, Rum, Vodka, Tequila, Lemon, Lots of Ice, Lots of Shaking, lots of sangria.
Long Island   LIIT: Vodka + Tequila + Rum + Gin + Triple Sec + Lemon Juice + Carbonated : Shake WELL
Green Sangria   Based on green alcohol and green spices, Yerba buena, Mint, Peppers, Sage...
Ginger Sangria   Either make Ginger juice or let ginger cuts stand in the refrigerator for at least 10 hours...
White Sangria   White wine, white rum, clear colors, lots of ice...
Rosemary Sangria   Heat water and rosemary until boiling, then simmer for 5 minutes. Cool then strain out the rosemary. Mix with pineapple juice and ginger ale right before serving.
COBBLERS   Baked shoemaker who illegally fakes documents, and drinks a cobbler.
Sherry Cobbler   First of all know the Types of Sherry before ordering this drink: Amontillado, Fino, Oloroso. 3.5oz of Sherry, 1 tbsp Sugar, 3 Orange Slices. Mix Orange + Sugar + Sherry + Crushed Ice and Shake. Garnish with mint and straw. Varieties of Clobbler with Lemon, Cranberries, Raspberries. Drink it here at the SSSFFF.
Bloody mary  

Cooctail Garnish lemon cattot cwlery manzanilla olivas

Vodka, Tomato Juice, Worcestershire saue, Tabasco, Piri Piri sauce, beef consomme , boulloion horseradish , celery olives salt black cayenne pepper lomon joice and celery salt …. most complex cock tail. Vladimir



Cosmopolitan Fresh Vodka 1.5 Vodka, 0.5 Cointreau, 1.0 Cranberry juice, 0.25 Lime Juice, Dress with Zest. Shake thoroughly, strain ice, serve cold.
Mojito/Julep Fresh Citric 6oz Rum, 4tbsp Sugar, 6 tbsp Fresh Lime Juice, 15 Mint Leaves, Club Soda. Mix all ingredients with ice, serve in a tall rounded glass, top with club Soda. Mystery ingredients: (a hot spice). Julep substitutes Rum with Bourbon.
Black Russian Vodka Vodka + Coffee Liquor
Cuba Libre Rum Rum + Coke (sponsors?)
Orgasmo   Amaretto+Vodka+Kahlua+Cream
Glow Drink 1 Glow in the Dark Pea Flower Tea + Rum Coconut + Blue Curacao
Glow Drink 2 Glow in the Dark Gin/Vodka + Tonic + Sweet Mix
Glow Drink 3 Glow in the Dark Blue Food Coloring + Energy Drink + Vitamin B + Rum/Whiskey/Vodka
Glow Drinks Glow in the Dark Chlorophyll + Guanine + Absinthe + Tonic Water + Club Soda + Food Coloring....
WHISKY   40-90% alcohol Fermented Grain Mash Aged in Oak (Roble)
Bourbon   Corn Mash >50% corn, Distilled at 160proof and aged at 125.
Scotch   Barley Mash

Rye (centeno, familia del trigo y cebada) (pumpernickel, knackebrod) (LSD) (Albert Hofman)(alcaloids)(vodka)

Jim Bean, Knob Creek Rye (Unsponsored)

Irish   From Ireland... we'll wait to go to Ireland to characterize this alcohol.
Kiwi RUM RUM Drink
  • 2 oz. ron blanco o mejor si es dorado
  • 1 kiwi entero, maduro y sin cáscara 
  • 4 oz. jugo de piña 
  • 1 oz. syrup
  • ½ oz. de Cointreau
  • Pica el kiwi en pedazos y muele manualmente con una espátula o mortero de tragos hasta que quede tipo puré.
  • Luego mezcla todos los ingredientes y enfríala con hielo en un “shaker” o pasándola por dos vasos con hielo.
  • Después sirve en un vaso de cocktail echándole también el hielo y los pedacitos de kiwi o sírvela en un vaso de Martini, cuelas el hielo y la fruta.
  • Adorna con una rodaja  de kiwi.
  • Ref:


Soda Water    
Orange Juice  
Grapefruit Juice  
Lemon Juice  
Cranberry Juice  
Triple Sec  
Bacardi Rum  
Palo Viejo Rum  
Barcelo Rum  
Don Q Rum  
Ron Crystal Rum  
151 Rum  
Anise Rum Rum  
Amarreto Rum Rum  
Spiced Rum Rum  
Chachaca Rum  
Jagermeister Liquor  
Ginger Liquor Liquor  
Mint Liquor Liquor  
Ron Cana Liquor  
Absolute Vodka Vodka  
Smirnoff Vodka Vodka  




2 oz Prosecco, 1 1/4 oz Aperol, Splash of Soda water

Khalua Coffee Liquor  
Bahia Coffee Liquor  
Tia Maria Coffee Liquor  
Cafe Granita Coffee Liquor  
Bayleys Coffee Liquor  
Coco Lopez Mix  
Citric Mix Mix  
Kapali Coffee Liquor  
Dewars Whiskey  
White Label Whiskey  
Black Label Whiskey  
Jack Daniels Whiskey  
Cointreau Liquor  
Passoa Liquor  
Brandy Liquor  
Cognag Liquor  
Blow Torch    

Return Home

Return Home

Return Home


Categories: Please see below (from:


Chemistry at SSSFFF


We are in the Works of Creating your Chemistry Home at SSFF .

Do you need Chemical Analysis or Chemistry Related Technologies? Write us with your questions at SSSSFFFF.

синтетической химии лес домой

la maison de la chimie de synthèse forêt

floresta sintético química casa

synthetische chemie wald zu hause

The CHEMISTRY TABLE: Atoms yield Organic Systems:to the complexity of Organic Systems: An attempt was made to maintain a vertical rule in increasing complexity: (of the system): that is Atoms are before molecules, before organic molecules and before thermodynamic reactions. Thermodynamics. Although not strictily enforced the hierarchy will make searching for terms more easily. SSSFFF will be updating the table format as we work to improve site navigation. SSSFF hopes the table will help people find useful information by association. All input is greatly appreciated! Write to, we'll gladly answer any questions or take feedback to improve your experience within The Forest.

Atomic Structure
What is an Atom?

Return Home

Does anybody know? Has anybody seen an atom?

How big is it? How do we know? Is there Similitude between Atoms and Galaxies?

Are there more Atoms in the Periodic Table that we do not know of?

Where did you see your first atom?

Is the atom a particle? Is it a wave? Is a Photon an atom?

Electronic Structure, VSEPR

n: principal quantum number: 1,2,3,4

l: 0s, 1p, 2d, 3f orbital. S: 0, P: -1,0,+1

m: for p subshell (-1, 0, 1)...

s: spin: angular momentum

s p d f


2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

6 6 6

7 7

Effective nuclear charge

#protons - nonvalence electrons.

Higher nuclear charge = smaller atomic radius.


Periodic Trends

The Periodicity of Elemental Structure:

Electron Affinity vs Electronegativity vs Ionization Energy

The Periodic table is not a square table ;

Atomic Radius increases down a column and to the left in a period.

Ionization Energy increases to the right in a period and up in a column. Helium has highest ionization energy.

Electron Affinity: Increases to the right in a period and up in a column. Generally it increases up in a column, ex Cl vs F

Electronegativity: Increases up a column and to the right. FOClNlBrISCH:decreasing order of electronegativity

Electron Affinity follows trend of Electronegativity, generally increasing as a more stable structure is formed when an electron is gained. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom. Electronegativity with respect to an atom in a molecule.

Lattice energy is the energy released when a crystal is formed from its constituting ions. e.g. Na+ Cl- -> NaCl(s). The ionic bond is stronger as the charges between atoms is larger. Al(OH)3 is insoluble in water because of large lattice energy

Acidity increases to the right in a period and down a column. Is related to the stability of the anion. As the size of the anion is increased charge can become delocalized easier.

Periodic Exceptions

Cl has higher electron affinity but lower Electronegativity than F because of electron pair repulsion in the valence shell.

Transition metal: When d-block elements form ions, the 4s electrons are lost first.

Vanadium has a higher melting point than Cr. Generally melting point is increased to the right within a period because of london/induced dipole forces.

V:[Ar] 4s2 3d3; V3+[Ar] 3d2

Cr has a half filled d level [Ar] 4s1 3d5

Cu: [Ar] 4s1 3d10

Au: has only one valence electron:

Ag: [Kr] 5s1 4d10


21Scandium and 22Titanium:

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 ,

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2


Charge, Ionic and Polyatomic Ions, Ionic Strength; Hydrogen Bond, Electronegativity, NH4+, PO4-3, SO4-2, ate-ite

Covalent Bonding Hybridization, Geometries sp3, sp2, sp Carbocation has sp2, trigonal planar geometry
Hydrogen Bonding: Dipole Moments

FON: A hydrogen bonded to a electronegative halogen can Hydrogen bond with another electronegative halogen. This can occur intramolecularly within short distances, around 1 C-C length.


Acid and Bases: Reduction Oxidation Reactions:

Lewis Acid, Bronsted Acid, Lewis Base, Bronsted Base,

Buffer, K, pK, Strong vs Weak Acids, Titration, Hydrolysis,

Electrolytic Cell, Anode Cathode, Galvanic vs Electrolytic Cell, Reduction Potential.


Arrhenius Acids yield H+.

If a substance accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond it is condsidered a Lewis Acid.

Reducing Agents: Reductor: Reducer: looses electrons: LiAlH4, H2.

Metals act as electron donors giving off ions in solution.Then it is said that the metal has been oxidized. Fe(s)-> Fe++ + 2e-. Substances that are oxidized act as REDUCING AGENTS.

Reducing Agents are oxidized. Oxidizing Agents are Reduced.

Oxidant = Oxidizing Agent = Oxidizer

Reductant = Reducing Agent = Reducer. Reducers gain Electrons given by the Reducing Agent that has been Oxidized (donating electrons).

LiAlH4 + 4 H2O → LiOH + Al(OH)3 + 4 H2

CARDIO Base: Charge-Atomis size-Resonance-Dipole Induction-Orbital: more negatively charged species are more basic, larger atoms with negative charges are more stable weaker bases, more resonance more stability, sp3 more basic than sp2...

NADP+ + 2H2O -> 2NADPH + 2H+ +CO2

NADP+ accepts electrons from water. This is a reduction. NADPH is the reducing agent.


Acidity and Melting Point are not related.

Larger atoms are more acid because can form more stable anions.



Oxidation: Gain of O, Loss of e-, Loss of H+



Arrhenius Definition


Arrenius Acids : Donate H+

Arrhenius Base: Accepts H+

Compounds ionize in solution (water only).


Lewis Definition


Lewis Acid accepts e- pair: Electrophile: Trigonal Planar BR3 with empty p orbital. H+ is a LA.

H+ + NH3 → NH4+ . Carbonium is electrophilic thereby a strong LA.

Strong Lewis acids are electron deficient. Strong Lewis Bases are electron rich.

Lewis Acid Base Pair

Lewis Base donates NONBONDING e- pair: H-, F-; are NUCLEOPHILES

Basic Amino Acids: Lys, Arg, His.

Conjugates of Strong Acid/Base have no effect on pH:


Bronsted Lowry Acids increase H3O+, Bases Increase -OH  
Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

To find the conjugate base of an acid, take off a H+

HCl is a strong acid. Cl-, its conjugate base has no effect on pH. Acids dissociate completely. The more stable is the anion the more acid is the molecule.

NH4Cl: NH4+ is the conjugate acid of weak base NH3

Weak base NH3, conjugate acid NH4+ strong acid.

acid + base = conjugate acid + conjugate base

Strong Acids: HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, HClO4, HBr, HI

SuperStrongAcids: HFSO3-SbF5

other scales beside pH are used to measure SSA.

Corrosiveness NOT EQUAL to Strength = HF

Ka vs pKa

COOH has a pKa of 4 - 5

The lower the pKa the higher the Ka. Low pKa are acidic. High pKa are basic.

When pKa and Ka are equal the compound is in equilibrium and the slope of titration curve is linear.





From Nerst to Current Trends



Electrostatic Energy

Lattice Energy

kQq/r vs F =k(q1q2)/r^2

ΔU = ΔH - p ΔV

Gauss Law: I = EAcos(-)

F = qvB sin(-)

F = qE

Coulomb's law k = 9E9 Nm^2/C^2

Electric field lines move out of the positive charge and into negative charges.


A dipole aligns so that the positive lines are "into the negative and out of the positive". The positive end of the dipole will be aligned with the electric field lines.

Charge moving in a circle: F = qvB = mv^2/r ; if qvB> mv^2/r the charge is spiralling in. if qvB<mv^2/r the charge is curving.

Current Carrying wires:

F = qvB sinθ = (it)vB sinθ = (it)(L/t)B sinθ = iLB sinθ

A negative Force means that charges are attracting.


CURRENT TRENDS: Conventional Current Flow is Opposite to Electron Current Flow. Arbitrarily the current flows out of the short battery symbol into the circuit.

The Current in a Parallel Circuit is Split at Ramifications like water flow.

The current in a Series Circuit is Steady. What drops is the voltage (like water pressure), as a loss to Impedance.


Resistors in series have the SAME current.

Electrolytic Cell

E(cell) > 0, the reaction is spontaneous and happens in a galvanic cell.

Faraday's law

E(cell) = E(oxidation) + E(reduction)

Galvanic = Voltaic Cell

Two pure metals connected by a salt bridge.

Oxidized species + e- = Reduced Species

Metal cations induce reduction of metals in other cell. So the more positive Oxidation Potential Metal gives off electrons from the Anode to the other metal Cathode . Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu . In a galvanic cell of Zn and Cu electrodes. The Zinc electrodes looses mass as electrons go to Cu2+ and Zn++ goes into solution.

Ionization Energy increases to the left and down a column. +
Difference b/w Electrolytic and Galvanic Cell    
Capacitor U = (1/2)CV^2  
Laws Ideal Gas, Boyle, Charles, Avogadros: Henry, Raoult, Arrhenius, Hess, Zeroth, First Law, Second Law, Rate Law, Le Chatelier, Faraday, Newton's First, Newton's Second Law, Dalton's Law  

Kinetic Theory of Gases

k = R/Na

Partial Pressure, Mole Fraction

STP: 0C, 1atm

Boyles law: PV = k: inverse proportionality P1V1 = P2V2

Charles law: V/T = k: direct proportionality: V1/T1 = V2/T2

Avogradro's Law: V1/N1 = V2/N2

Dalton's Law: p = xP also vi = V * pi/P

Henry's law pi = k ci: pi is the partial pressure of the solute.

"At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid."

Raoult's law: p = p* x; p* is the vapor pressure of pure component.

Raoult vs Henry: Henry is more related to solute, Raoult to solvent: When the solvent is in a great quantity the constant of proportionaliy is the partial pressure of the solvent.

Real Gas Law, Van der Waaaals \left(p + \frac{a'}{v^2}\right)\left(v-b'\right) = kT  

Molarity: kg / L

Molality: mol / L

Normality: meq / L

Molar Volume at 0C and 1atm = 22.4L/mol

f = Av


Mass Effects Return Home Surface Tension  

Colligative Equations


Solubility vs T, P.

Osmotic Pressure: Solvent moves across a semipermeable barrier from high concentration to low concentration. The pressure difference across the chambers is the osmotic pressure.

Chaotropic agents: increases solubility of non polar. (Alcohol, Urea, Lithium acetate). Denature proteins by increasing hydrophobic solubility.

Kosmotripic increase water-water interactions. Stabilizes intermolecular protein interactions thereby preventing aggregation. (Mg2+, Li+1, Zn2+), mostly small positive ions). Ammonium sulfate.


Surface Tension

Mechanical Properties of Liquids



All 1A metal salts are water soluble

All NH4+ salts are water soluble

All NO3--, ChH3O2-, ClO4- , are water soluble. KNO3

SO4 -2 sulfate

PO4 --- phophate

Complex Ion formation, solubility

Common Ion effect

Silver salts are insoluble in water with the exception of silver nitrate, silver acetate and silver sulfate.

Chlorides Bromides Iodides, are soluble with the exception of AgCl2, PBCl2, HgCl2

Base Solubility: Ca(OH)2 is soluble.

Group 1 and NH4+ salts are soluble

Group 2 MgO, metal oxides Insoluble.

Sparingly soluble salts derived from weak acids tend to be more soluble in an acidic solution.

Which of the following insoluble salts—AgCl, Ag2CO3, Ag3PO4, and/or AgBr—will be substantially more soluble in 1.0 M HNO3 than in pure water?

Answer: Ag2CO3 and Ag3PO4

Good Reference:

Buffers Tritration Curve effect  

Ksp describes saturated solutions.

BaC O 3(s) ---- Ba 2+(aq )+C O 2 3(aq )

Ksp= [Ba2+][CO32-] = 5.1 x 10-9


Heat Effects

Conduction, Convection Radiation, Work, Rankine Scale, Absolute Scale, Conservation, Decay, Half Life

Return Home



Bond Dissociation


Endo, Exo, Enthalpy, Heat Capacity, Specific Heat, Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy, Spontaneity, Heat of Fusion, Heat of Vaporization

Zeroth Law, First Law, Second Law.

Heat of Hydration

Thermodinamically favorable. Solvation releases heat.

First heat is required (ENDOTHERMIC) to break up an ionic crystal lattice. The hydration step is exothermic.

Think of Dissolving Salts, is it Exo/Endo Thermic?
Heat of Combustion

Energy released when a compound is completely combusted with O2 under 1atm, 298K.

Ring Strain and Transanular effects result in increasd Heat of Combustion.

Ciclohexane has lowest heat of Combustion per CH2 group. o

Heat of Formation

Standard States 1atm of gas, or elemental solid. at constant T 298K, P 1atm.

Sum of all the bonds broken and all bonds formed from elemental atoms or molecules in their std state.

Le Chatelier In an equilibrium reaction mass of a species, temperature, or pressure can shift the equilibrium concentrations to favor an increae of products or reactants. Reference:

ΔG is negative. Standard Reduction Potential is positive E0.

DeltaG = -RTln(K); DeltaG = -nFE

Kinetic Effects    
Catalysis, Enzymes,

Reaction Order,

Reaction Rate

Rate Determining Step



enzyme-catalysed reactions display saturation kinetics.

increasing substrate concentration means an increasing rate at which the enzyme and substrate molecules encounter one another.

Enzymes lower Activation Energy. Enzymes do not change the Thermodynamics of a Reaction.


Alpha particles: He nucleus: 2 protons, 2 neutrons

Beta particles: +/-

Beta Decay: neutron decomposes. Beta decay is usually B(-)

B(+): Nucleus converts a proton into a neutron and a positron.The positron is liberated. Atomic number decreases. Occurs when the isotope has too few neutrons.

B(-): electron is liberated. Atomic number is increased. Neutron is decomposed into electron and proton. Electron is referred to as B particle.

Electron Capture EC: electron meets proton and is converted into a neutron. Mass number stays the same but proton number is reduced. Element change.

Gamma Radiation: Eenergy emmitted as electromagnetic radiation.

Alpha particles are very destructive. 4/2. They are quickly absorbed by skin.

c = 3(10)^8 m/s


Wave Duality, Wave Properties, Amplitude, Intensity, Superposition, Resonance, Diffraction, Refraction, Harmonic Motion, Pendulum, Differential Movement

Materials Sciences

Solids, Density, Thermal Expansion, Viscosity, Magnetism, Force Direction, Coulomb, Ampere, Field Line, Charge Distribution, Insulation,



L= Iw moment of inertia times angular velocity around axis of rotation

tangential velocity = rl: product of radius and angular velocity


Centripetal force F = -mv^2/r

Momentum p = mv; m = Δ P / Δ t

Impulse I = Ft

Hook's law F = -kx

Momentum is always conserved: in elastic and inelastic reactions momentum is conserved.

In Inelastic collisions KE is NOT conserved. KE is lost.

Sound Waves

Transverse Wave: Displacement of medium is perpendicular to direction. A transverse wave can only occur in the surface of a liquid, not in its body. TW can occur in solids.

Longitudinal Wave: Displacement of medium is along direction of motion.

Sound can be represented as a Longitudinal wave.

Light can be represented as a Transverse Wave.

Spreading Equation Δθ = λ / d
Half Life N= No(1/2)^(t/t(1/2))  

Current, Voltage, Resistance, Ohms, Resistivity, Capacitance

Circuits, Capacitor, Dielectric, Power, Circuits in Series, Circuits in Parallel

V = IR

I = Δ Q / Δ t

P = VI = RI^2



B = [Ns/Cm] = Force/ ChargexVelocity

Ohms Law is used to calculate Voltage Drop across a resistor.
How do you know the Magnetic Field is Perpendicular to the Electric Field?    
Applied Effects —°µ    
Hydrostatic Pressure, Surface Tension, Bernoulli's Equation, Flow Profiles    
Normal Force, Vectors


Perfectly Inelastic p = (m1 + m2) v


Theta = arc length/ radius


2pi/360 =

Refer to spreading equation of light and sound. The spreading is proportional to the wavelength of the emitted wave over the distance of the orifice of emission.
Power Units: Watts: [W] P = VI = V^2 R  
Energy Work Units: Joules: [J]  
Potential Energy



PEg= -GmM/r

ΔPE=qDeltaPHI: electric lines point in the direction of the lower electric field..


Force Fspring = -kx  
Waves Light, Polatization, Refraction, Diffraction, Doppler Effect  

Interference, Young's double slit, laser, Color and Energy

Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflectio n with respect to the NORMAL. The angle is often referred with respect to the surface. Index of Refraction n = c / v. n1 sin( 1) = n2 sin(2). Internal reflection occurs when light travels from a medium of lesser light speed to greater light speed (greater n to less n)

Because the index of refraction of red and blue light is different the eye cannot focus on red and blue light in the same place.


Visualize Water.
Magnetism Direction and force of charge in magnetic field.  
Resistance Resistance is added in series.  



Parallel Voltages are equal. Voltage is a Potential Difference

V = I R

Galvanic and Voltaic cells are the same.

Electrolytic cells drive nonspontaneous reactions.



Current, Voltage, Resistance, Resistivity p = RA/L, Capacitance

RMS Voltage, RMS current.




Capacitors in series are 'parallel added'



(1/f) = (1/i) + (1/o); Magnification: M= -i/o; Focal length (f) is 1/2 radius of curvature: f = r/2;

Lens Power: [Diopters] = 1/f

Snells law: n sin () = n sin ()

Concave Mirror: Real (always Inverted) image small, same, larger to underfined, Virtual larger image

Convex Mirror: Virtual Erect smaller image. The

Cocave Lenses are Diverging.focal length is (-) for a diverging lens. Diverging Lenses form only Virtual Images. Virtual Images are upright so their magnification value is (+)

Mirror 1) beyond C 2) at C 3) between C and f 4) at f 5) in front of f

Inverted, Reduced,

gradually increasing in size as you move farther

Inverted, Equal Inverted, Larger no image

Upright,Larger, gradually reducing size as you move closer




Gradually INCREASING in size as you move CLOSER

Diverging. Convex mirrors and Concave lenses NEVER form Real Images.

Real images can be cast on a Screen?

f is positive for a concave mirror and negative for a convex mirror.

All real images are inverted and all virtual images are upright.

How does the image of a Concave Mirror change as you move closer?

Optics: Eye Correction

Myope: Nearsighted: cannot see far away. Light focuses in front of retina. Divergent lenses are needed.

Hypermetropy: Farsighted: cannot see close. Light focuses behind retina. Convergent lens needed.

We loose Acccomodation as we age. Accomodation is the ability to

Converging Lens  
Nomenclature of Alkanes

1. Take longer chain

2. Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers. When compairing a series of numbers, the series that is the "lowest" is the one which contains the lowest number at the occasion of the first difference. If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, assign the lowest number to the one which will come first in the name.

3. If chains of equal length are competing for selection as the parent chain, then the choice goes in series to:
a) the chain which has the greatest number of side chains.
b) the chain whose substituents have the lowest- numbers.
c) the chain having the greatest number of carbon atoms in the smaller side chain.
d)the chain having the least branched side chains.




sp is 50% s character which is less energetic than p. This results in increased acidity.

SP2 Hibridization: Trigonal planar geometry. Free p electron. Nitrogen in a cycle. Nitrogen in a cycle has the free pair projected outside the plane in trigonal planar geometry, sp2 hibridization.

SP Hibridization examples: triple bonds.

Exceptions: BH3 is sp2 hybridized.

CO2: sp with 180'

Formal Charge


FC = V- (N + B/2); e.g. NH4+:

Nitrogen has a +1 formal charge (5- (0 + 8/2) = +1)

Oxygen in NO2- : 6 - (4 + 4/2) = 0

Formal Charge of Phosphoric Acid.P=0, hibridized sp3

FC = Valence - (alone bond pairs - half of bonding electrons)

5-(0+10/2) = 0

Degrees of Saturation

(C2n+2 - H) / 2; example BuckyBall C60: (122 - 0) / 2 = 61

Nitrogens count as 0.5C

Oxygen does not count.

Halogens count as Hydrogens.


Additional Equations exist that give the same result for degrees of unsaturation.

Shortcut: Double bond = 1deg of unsat.

1 triple bond = 2 deg of unsat

1 cyclic molecule = 1 degre of unsat

Functional Groups

BP: Alkoxide>Carboxilic acid> Alcohol>Ether>Alkane

BP Amines: Amonium Salt>1ry>3ry

Amines basicity is increased with electron donating groups. Secondary amines are stronger bases than primary amines. Imine R=N-H

Chirality Geometric Isomers: cis-trans  
Stereoisomer: 2^n: same chemical formula. R, S  
Enantiomer R to S, RR to SS, SR to RS  
Diastereomer RS to SS, SR to RR  
Optical Activity: +/- indicate physical bend of light. R/S only indicate imaginary rotation. Diastereomers and Racemic Mixtures are NOT optically active.

Constitutional Isomers: Ortho ./ Para : same molecular formula with different connectivity.

Configurational (R), (S): differe in bond configuration.

Rotamers: Conformational Isomer.

Regioisomer: Different starting material configuration give different structuraly isomeric products.



Acidity S-S-C-P-A-alpha-SP-SP1-SP2-SP3: ""

Contributing structures with delocalized electrons in free p orbitals.

The contributing stuctures are not equal. The structure that locates the charge in the more electronegative atom is more stable.

Resonance contributes to increasing acidity by stabilizing the negative charge of conjugate bases.
Hydrogen Hydrogen Proton H+, Hydride ion H: -1  
Heterolytic Hydrogen Cleavage The electron pair of the bond goes to same atom.  
Homolytic Hydrogen Cleavage each electron of the bond goes to a different atom. Radicals are stabilized by electron donating groups. Peroxides give antiMarkovnikov products with alkenes.  
Radical Reactions





Radical Stability: Alllylic and Benzyllic Radical are comparable. Vinyllic Radical has higher bond energy because the double bond in more electronegative.

Stereochemical Considerations

Br2 vs Cl2: Selectivity; ratio of products

Good Reference:


Increases going down the periodic table F- < Cl- < Br-< I-;

Increases to the left across a period CH3-> NH2- > OH-

Nu: are Lewis Bases. Donate protons.








Solvent: Polar Aprotic DMSO, DMF, MeCN, Dimethyl Ketone, Acetone: Polar Aprotic Solvents stabilize Carbocation. Polar Aprotic solvents cannot bond with Nu:

[Adjust], most stable carbocations. Racemization Likely so result is either a racemic mixture or diastereomer.

3ry>2ry: Carbocation is formed. Reaction Rate = k [electrophile]

Weak Nucleophiles Favor Sn1


Alcohols and Alkyl Halides undergo substitution reactions.

Solvent: Polar Aprotic DMSO,DMF, MeCN, Acetone,

Polar Protic Solvents favor E2 over SN2.

Polar APROTIC Solvents Favor SN2 over E2.

Sn2: Reaction is favored by 1 > 2 > 3 substitution because of crowding in the transition state. All other reactions are 3 > 2 > 1. Transition state is crowded so less substituted molecules undergo reaction faster. The reaction rate = k [nucleophile][electrophile]. Hydrogen bonding solvents prevent the nucleophile from initiating the reaction.


Pointer: Rule Out Possibilities: if you see a protic solvent rule out Sn2...



Solvent: Hydrogen Bonding Solvents

Reaction Rate = k [Haloalkane]



Polar Protic Solvents favor E2 over SN2.

STRONG Base Favors E2 because: base can deprotonate to free a pair of electrons.

Reaction Rate = k [Haloalkane] [Base]

Antiperiplanar proton


Reminder: "Protic = Pi = double bonds use a Pi bond"



Reaction Rate


Stability of Intermediate

Strength of Nucleophile



Markovnikov more stable carbocation is formed. H and CH3- migration  
antiMarkovnikov less substituted alkyl bromide bond is formed. HBr/hv with Peroxides
Hoffman Rule    
Zaitzeff Rule priority  
Molecular Geometry    
Trigonal Bipyramidal upon loosing a pair of electrons becomes a seesaw.  

Organic Acids


Henderson Hasselbach

pH = pKa + log [A-]/[HA]

low pKa = High Ka = Strong Acid. If pH < pKa: Protonated.

If pH > pKa: BASIC, Unprotonated

A proton becomes acid when the bond breaks heterolytically.

Homolytic Bond Breaking: Homolysis: the bond breaking kcal/mol is higher = requires more energy. Electron pairing in heterolysis stabilizes.

Alkene Reactions    
Alkene HaloAlkane Addition Markovnikov, Not Enantioselective.  
Alkene HaloAlkane Addition with Peroxide

Gives Halogenated less substituted haloalkane.


Alkene Hydration Acid Catalyzed

Gives Alcohol

Pi bond is protonated initially, forming a carbocation.

Alkene Oxymercuration/Demercuration

Gives Alcohol. Markovnikov.

Pi bond is protonated initially, forming a carbocation.

Alkene Hydroboration

Give Alcohol


Alkene DiHaloxen X-X Attack

Sn2: Trans Product

Reaction proceed by instant (-) polarization of pibond by X-X

Reaction can yield Halogenated and -OH groups. -OH is Markovnikov.

Alkene Epoxide Formation

Gives Epoxide and Carboxylic acid..

Followed by acid or base hydrolysis to give Diol.

Alkene Oxidation with KMnO4

Gives cis-Diol

trans diol with peroxy acid.

Alkene Hydration (Reduction) (cis or trans)

Gives Alkane.

H2 with Ni, Pd, Pt. cis addition. Lindlar Catalyst with dopant stops reaction at alkene.

trans addition is with Na, NH3

Recall Reduction.
Alkene Ozonolysis

Gives Ketones.

Reactant O3 + Zn in H20

Aromatic Compounds

Aromaticity: Huckel Number: 4n + 2; Cyclic, free p orbital with a Huckel number, flat and planar.

Can be accomplished via Cyclic Delocalization , Resonance, Conjugation

If an electron like Oxygen is in the bond we only use one pair of electrons for aromaticity

Examples: Purine, Pyridiine, Thymine

Good Reference:
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution

The Benzene ring is succeptible to electrophilic attack. Heat is required because the ring is pi stabilized.

Ortho/Para: have lone pair of electrons on the atom bonding the ring. with the exception of alkyl R.

-NO2 is a META deactivator


Activators have free electrons in the atom bonded to the benzene ring: -NH2, -OC6H5, -OR, -O(-)

OrthoPara Deactivators: Cl, Br, I are deactivators

Deactivators increase anion stability upon protonation: acidity is increased.
Aromatic Diels Alder

Concerted Formation of Ciclic Compounds from conjugated diene.

Dienophyle = alkene or alkyne



Ketone Reactions

Keto/Enol Tautomerism

Acid Alpha proton

Ketones do not undergo substitution reactions.

Beta keto Acid. Beta keto ester.

Ketone Formation from 2ry Alcohols with Chromate Oxidation.
Ketones: Acetal

Cyclic Contains 2 'ketones'

Biologicaly Important.

Ketones: Hemiacetal

Cyclic Contains 1 ketone

Biologicaly Important

Ketones: Imines   Convert the Carbonyl to an Imine
Ketones: Aldol Condensation

"one ketone stays the same and bonds with a double bond through the alpha carbon, after dehydration, so the carbonyl oxygen of the ketone that does not have alpha hydrogen is lost.

study mechanism


Acyl Group Carboxylic Acids> Acyl Halide, Acid Anhydride, Ester, Amide

Acyl derivatives interconvert to lower reactivity.

Acid Halide > Acid Anhydride > Ester > Amide

less hindered carbonyl is more reactive.

Carboxylic Acids

Acetate CH3 COOR

Acidity Order: HC l> Carboxylic Acid > Substituted Phenol > diketone > ketone

Bases Deprotonate to give COO- Salts

Carboxylic Acids:

Nucleophilic Addition Elimination

electronegative groups allow attack at the Carbonyl and serve as good leaving groups.  
Carboxylic Acids Transesterification: Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid gives Ester.  
Ester are neutral in solution.  
Ester Hydrolysis

Nucleophilic Acyl substitution : Addition Elimination : Saponification

Acid and Basis Catalyzed

Inorganic Esters Central Carbon P, S. Contain more than one double bond. See reaction of PBr3 with 3ROH -> H3PO3 + 3RBr

Reductive Amination: Amines Attack of Ketones to yield 1,2,3ry substituted Imines that are Reduced with H2/Pd to Amines.

Amines to Alkenes via HoffMann Elimination: Less substituted alkenes.


Acid Base Reactions with Carboxylic Acids

Basic Leaving groups decrease reactitvity of Acid Chlorides with respect to Anhydrides> Esters>Amides

Hoffman Rearrangement: Amides are converted to Amines

Imines   Schiff Base R1R2C=NR3

Sugars, Proteins, Fats, Metabolism, pKa, Anomeric Carbon

See SSSFFF Biology

Good References:


Fructose, Glucose, Ribose

LOOK at chirality FARTHEST from C1 to determine L/R.

Sucrose: Glc + Fru: Alpha-1,2

Lactose: Gal + Glc: Beta-1,4

Maltose: Glc + Glc: Alpha-1,4

Cellobiose: Glc + Glc: Beta-1,4

Glycogen: α 1-4

EPIMERS are NEVER Enantiomers. Epimers differ only in one stereogenic center that IS NOT the last chiral carbon. Alpha/Beta epimers: Alpha = Axial, Beta = Equatorial

HAWORTH Projection: Beta is UP!!!



D, L

Aldohexose vs ketopentose, vs aldotriose (threeOHgroups)

ketohexoses (6OH and 1 C=O)

Anomeric Carbon: cyclic: opposite the CH2OH outside the rinh

C1 orientation

Hexoses Glucose  



Sulfur Containing Molecules Mesylate, Triflate, Tosylante  

All natural AA are L, amphoteric

Carboxylic pKa aprox 2. Amino Group pKa aprox 10


Form salt to become water soluble: Carboxilic acids are extracted with weak bases.

NaHCO3 is better than NaOH because it destabilized aromatic structures.


10 Enzymes Everyone should know

Glycogen Phosphorylase


Glucose 6-Phosphatase


Hexokinase / Hexose / Dehydrogenase / Oxidase




Cytochrome Oxidase


Reactant List HNO3 EAS Activator of
Br2 + FeBr3 (heat) EAS Bromination
H2SO4 (heat) EAS Sulfonation
Friedel-Craft RCOCl + AlCl3 (heat) EAS Aryl Ketone
Friedel-Craft RCl + AlCl3 (heat) EAS Alkylation
Hg(OAc) in Water then NaBH4 Alkene Oxidation to Markovnikov Alcohol
BH3 in THF then H2O2 Alkene Anti Markovnikov Alcohol
KMnO4 cis Diol
OsO4 cis Diol
PCC Anhydrous Oxidant: 1ry Alcohol to Aldehydes
CrO3/ H2CrO4/Cr2O7-2/CrO3 Aqueous Oxidants: 2ry Alcohol to Ketones

NaBH4 in EtOH

Reductor of Carbonyl
LiAlH4 in Ether (aprotic) Reductor of Carbonyl
NaH, KH Hydride bases
Grignard RMgBr in Acid Reductor of Carbonyl + R
RLi Reductor of Carbonyl + R
Wittig Phosphonium Ylide Reductor of Carbonyl to Alkene
  NaOH/H2O Acid

Aldol Condensation. Base attacks Alpha proton.

Beta Hydroxyl Carbonyl or Alpha/Beta unsaturated Carbonyl

  NaOH / KOH Saponification
  SOCl2 Inorganic Ester reactions.
  NaHCO3 Extraction of Carboxilic Acids
  10% HCl Extraction of Amines
  Tosyl Chloride Stabilizez anion charge in COO-, H leaves
  Wolf-Kishner Reduction  
Molecules to know Furan, Pyran, Toluene, Naphtalene, Phenanthrene  
Polymer Chemistry    
Elastic Properties Elastic Limit  
Thermal Expansion Coefficient    
Detection Techniques Detection IR  



3600-3200 -OH

3300 Amines (OH broadest, NH sharper)

3000 C-H

2300 - 2100 C---C or C---N

1700 C=0 (Carbonyl, Carboxylic Acids)

1650 C=C

Chromatography Separation of derivatized diastereomers. Enantiomers can be reacted with a known stereochemistry comp.  








Wet Column


Also referred to as Gravity Column Chromatography




TLC R factor: Polar molecules are retained by Silica, so have smaller R f.  
Size Exclusion Chromatography SEC Large Elute First.

Size Exclusion, gel permeation chromatography or gel filtration chromatography. separates particles on the basis of molecular size (actually by a particle's Stokes radius). It is generally a low resolution chromatography and thus it is often reserved for the final, "polishing" step of the purification. It is also useful for determining the tertiary structure and quaternary structure of purified proteins. SEC is used primarily for the analysis of large molecules such as proteins or polymers. SEC works by trapping these smaller molecules in the pores of a particle. The larger molecules simply pass by the pores as they are too large to enter the pores.



Electrophoretic mobility. Native proteins, or denatured. Structured or unstructured, .

SDS is anionic detergent to linearize proteins and give negatice charge. Even proportionation of charge to mass, so particles are sorted by size. Membrane hydrophobic proteins are difficult to treat with sds. Silver Staining.

Scintillation counting

Iodomelatonin in the presence of selective antagonist for the receptor

We have pharmacologically characterized recombinant human mt1 and MT2 receptors, stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-mt1 and CHO-MT2), by measurement of [3H]-melatonin binding and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production.

[3H]-melatonin bound to mt1 and MT2 receptors with pKD values of 9.89 and 9.56 and Bmax values of 1.20 and 0.82pmolmg−1 protein, respectively. Whilst most

Whilst most melatonin receptor agonists had similar affinities for mt1 and MT2 receptors, a number of putative antagonists had substantially higher affinities for MT2 receptors, inclu ding luzindole (11 fold), GR128107 (23 fold) and 4-P-PDOT (61 fold).

In both CHO-mt1 and CHO-MT2 cells, melatonin inhibited forskolin-stimulated accumulation of cyclic AMP in a concentration-dependent manner (pIC50 9.53 and 9.74, respectively) causing 83 and 64% inhibition of cyclic AMP production at 100nM, respectively. The potencies of a range of melatonin receptor agonists were determined. At MT2 receptors, melatonin, 2-iodomelatonin and 6-chloromelatonin were essentially equipotent, whilst at the mt1 receptor these agonists gave the rank order of potency of 2-iodomelatonin>melatonin>6-chloromelatonin.

In both CHO-mt1 and CHO-MT2 cells, melatonin-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole, with pA2 values of 5.75 and 7.64, respectively. Melatonin-mediated responses were abolished by pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin, consistent with activation of Gi/Go G-proteins.

Mass Spectroscopy

Base Peak is the largest peak. It is fragmented.

Parent peak is the ion of the molecule without fragmentation.

Uncharged molecules are not detected.

More fragmentation produces smaller peaks.

Quantitative and Qualitative: The m/z ratio

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


Electron donating are shielding, Electron Withdrawing are deshielding.

Left axis has larger number. So deshielded protons appear to the left=downfield (-RCOOH). Shielded protons appear to the right (H-C-CH3x3)

1-propyne vs 1 propene: s haracter is less shielding.

ORDER: Aldehyde and Carboxylic- Aromatic- Vinillyc--- Halogen, ether, allyl, alkyne, benzyllic .


Allylic proton is very deshielded.

Memorize the 6-8ppm region is Aromatic.

Geminal Methyl Groups are identical.

Good Reference:

C NMR Height of Peak proportional to number of H attached to C.  

Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay

Antibody binds antigen-Wash-Enzume Linked antibody-Wash-Color Change


Vulcanic Chemistry


Tectonic Plates

Nazca Plates


Hotspots, Magma, 700C to 1600C, SiO2, Fe, Mg, 2200-2800kg/m3, IDDP magma geothermal energy generator

Phreatic vs Phreatomagmatic vs Magmatic Eruption

Magmatic Eruption: Decompression of Gas

Phreatic Eruption: Superheated Water Expansion

Phreatomagmatic Eruption: Compression of Gas within Magma


Mount Pele in St Pierre, Martinique exploded in 1903 killing 30k.

Tools for Earthquake Prediction:

Thermal tools: Heat

Chemical: Vulcanic Chemistry, Water Quality and Gas Composition

Nuclear: Particle Counters through volcanic Mass

Mechanical: Earthquakes and Sound waves.

Return Home

H                             He
Li Be                 B C N O F Ne
Na Mg                 Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca                 Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr                 In Sn Sb Te I Ke
Cs Ba                 Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra                            

Return Home

  One Arcminute is equal to 1/60 of one degree. One Arcsecond is equal to 1/60 Arcminute. So One Arcsecond is equal to 1/3600 of a degree.  
  One degree is 1/360 of a circle. One Arcminute is (1/60)(1/360)=(1/21600) of a Circle. 1deg=3600arcseconds;  
  To complete a circle of 360deg, with a frequency of 500arcsec/century will take (360)(3600)/500 centuries.  

Return Home


The Engineering World

Engineering is Planification into Thought, implemented, that simplifies a Need.

find EVERYTHING you NEED for your Planification, Thought and Action



Return to Site Menu

Suppliers, Vendors: Post your supplies here. Simply email us at

Post your Requisitions Here.

Are you a Company that is selling a Machine? Get a spot here!

We are working daily to improve your experience in this Piece of Forest.

World Regulatory Bar: To improve the Engineering World, The Synthetic Forest seeks to explore and compare differences in World Engineering Regulations.



Value Management

Predictive Study

Project Planning

Risk Management

Design Management

Information Management

Supply Chain Management




Engineering Finances



Benefit Analysis

Sources of Finance

Equity, Loans, Working Capital

Microsoft Project

Tank Inspections (Pharmaceutical)

Storage Tanks


Portable Tanks


Electropolishing and Surface Priming

Impeller Selection, Mixing Profiles, Heat Profiles

Turnover Packages Inspections, Materials Selection, Pipeline Installations, Leak Tests, Seals and Gaskets

Cleaning Skits, Soap Selection, Cleaning Strategies, Cleaning Validation

Laboratory Inspections


Quality Laboratory Inspections

Non Conformance

Investigations LIR's

Product Performance

Product Release

Material Inspections

CAPAs and EVs


21CFR is FDA

Pressure Stage vs Temperature Stage

High Vacuum, ISO5 to ISO8 Facility

Particle Counters Viable and Non Viable

Point Differential Finite Element Analysis CFD

Cell Culture (Biotechnology)


21CFR610 General Biological Products

Cell Growth and Scale Up: From Clones to Grafts.

Cell Culturing and Lab Analysis: PCR, North to West Blots. Electrophoresis, Gene Chips, Sequencing Analysis.

Biotechnological Testing Equipment Comissioning. Centrifuges, Filters, Pumps, Dispensing Systems.

Test Selection and Design of Experiments.


Marine Vessel Inspections
(Fuel Carriers)




Oil Carriers, Food Carriers, Vessel Entry Permits.

Enclosed Vessels

Cryogenic Vessels


Water Treatment Inspections

40 CFR414 Effluent Guidelines

OCPSF Organic, Chemical, Plastics,

Synthetic Fibers

Waste Water Pretreatment

Release Permitting




Document Qualification

User Requirements

GMP/ISO Specifications





HVAC System Validation



Installing Compressed Air Lines

Installing Chillers

Installing Refrigeration Units

Installing Boilers


Flammable Hot Work

Working with Flammables

Fire Safety and Regulations


Storage and Safety

Explosion Prevention

Fire Management


Computer System Validation CSV





LAN Connection

Data Storage

Audit Trails

Electronic Signature

Data logs and Forms

Network Infrastructure

Communication Protocols

Integrity and Security


Energy Savings



LED Systems

Control Panels

Power Consuption Estimation





Non Conformance


Package Tracking

Safety Material Storage

Stability Packaging

Packaging Materials

Laser Printing


Food and Drug

Quality Risk Management

Management Systems

Quality Engineering

Quality Assurance



Workflow Optimization

Workflow Streamlining


Catalysis and Reconstitution

Fischer Tropsch Reactors

Inductive Heating into Syn Gas

Sugars and Derivatives

Exothermal Control

Drug Delivery Systems


Controlled Release Systems

Compounding Strategies

Solid Blending

Solutions, Emulsions, Suspensions.

Drug Delivery Technologies

Synthetic Materials


Semiconductors / Superconductors

Organic / Inorganic Polymers

The Engineering World





Call us to 1.787.685.9808

for material queries.


The Engineering World


Consulting Expertise Available. Hire Consultants Here. Call us at 1.787.685.9808.

We can match your project needs with our consultats. Please call us to let us know what you need. From Training Services to Installations, Comissioning, Retrofit Modifications. We are involved in all areas of Engineering: Electrical, Chemical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering.

We also provide Legal Services like Experts for litigation, Permitting for Local and State requirements, and Attorneys.

Our goal is to service your needs Here!

-Under Construction- If you are a State or Local Government Representative and would like to post information on this site please email us at

Return to Site Menu

World Law Bodies
Country Links
United States of America
European Union

South Korea
South Africa


Return to Site Menu




INSTALLATIONS: Have you ever bought an item you've had to assemble at home? Well, Engineering Installations are like that multiplied by a factor of 10^5... So let's picture an installation... it is not only you assemblying your new LEGO, there are about 15 to 50 people depending on the magnitude of the project, that are impacted by, are accountable for, or have a direct or indirect responsibility with the installation. So picture yourself in stalling a new armchair with your distant relatives, your neighbor, the lawnmower man, and the village genius. The fun factor of science get covered under the prioritizing of tasks and the egomaniacal organizational struggle of some politically structured organizations to take credit about installing the initial screw on a Billion dollar global project. Welcome to the world of installations. Organizations may be what are dubbed "Political" or "Hierarchical", "Vertical" or "Progressive", "Open", "Relaxed" or "Horizontal", make no mistake, at all times someone is loosing a spot and someone is seeking a callous advantage. Is there common sense in an organization? Yes. Or we'd like to think so. Imagine rowers rowing towards the horizon. That is common sense. Meanwhile at the Site there are 500, or maybe 3000 rowers with their own horizon, Life's ambitions and carry their problems and motivations as drag or thrust to drive the boat spearheading the horizon. Here at the SSSSSSFFFFFF we'd like to explore the Cultural differences in spearheading the Industrial boat towards bulding common sense in the wide cultural settings where Installations take place. Write to us and tell us your story. We'd like to hear from perspectives of expatriates in far away countries working for large or small organizations. Are you a CEO, CFO, Chairman or Site Leader? Share your thoughts with us at ... Installations are Big Job Creators. Whenever a new site opens many roleplayers are needed: Accountants, Construction Workers, Foreman, Civil-Electrical-Chemical-Mechanical-Computational Engineers, Inspectors, Internal Regulators,

Some Units (unsponsored) (unsponsored) (unsponsored)

Design Planning and Qualification

Initial Stage of Project Engineering. Originated by Site Engineers. Units are requested to Sales Engineers to adjust User Requirements.
User Requirements Specification URS

Site's performance and capacity needs for the unit.

Contraints on Performance.

Validation Master Plan

Draft of Planned qualification activities. Includes upstream, downstream process logistic impacts. It is presented to QA for revision and approval. It also included expected completion dates for IQ, OQ, PQ.

Outlines commitments to be met on the Validation Report.

Change Management Informs Quality Assurance of changes to existing process documentation. It is carried out in agreement with QA officials and involves thorough checks of impact to production schedules and to final product characteristics.
Commissioning Processs of Identification, Performance Optimization, and Vefification of new process units or of retrofit repair work on existing units.
Sales Engineering Sales Engineer provide the units that sites buy. They also customize the unit to fit space, voltage, performance and size requirements. All sale documentation is included as evidence in the Installation Qualificatin as part of the Transfer Protocol Binder.
Intallation Qualification (IQ) Documentation to support the unit's structural, electrical and mechanical parts. No performance parameters are checked during this qualification. IQ may be merged with SAT.
Operational Qualification (OQ) Documentation to Support Operational parameters: Upper and Lower Operational Limits. Tests Include Optimization of Process Parameters and Multiple Mass, Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Loadings.

Performance Qualification Qualifies unit under process manufacturing conditions. A minimum of 3 lots are run.
SOP Edition Protocols of Calibration, Operation, Maintenance, Data Access, Repair work are drafted and approved by QA.
Routine Meetings Daily, Weekly, Monthly, meetings to update project status.
Deviations Deviations are oftern encountered under executions. Deviations are investigated and corrected prior to a subsequent qualification run.
Reports Progress Reports are Expected to Update Site Managers on the progress of work and any Remaining Issues to be addressed.
21CFR11 Compliance Traceability, Data Management, Storage, Recovery and Backup of Information. It make electronic records supplant paper record and allows for electronic data record to be legally binding by authorizing signatures.
CSV Computer System Validation. Equipments possesing data storage and data processing need to be qualified per 21CFR part11.
Inputs Checklist of Inputs
Outputs Checklist of Outputs
Software Changes Existing Modifications and Updates per User Requirements
Hardware Changes Existing Modifications and Updates per User Requirements
Final Installation Checklist As Is Unit Installation Checklist.
Personnel Training Final Stage. Operator, Technicians and Engineers are Trained on proper operation of unit As Is.








Heat Exchangers, Chillers, Air Handling Units, Compressors, Pump, Ducts, Piping, Refrigerant


Oral Solids Sterile Products & Medical Devices
HVAC requirements for GMP
Design to Qualify, EconomicsQualification and Risk
IQ - OQ - PQ
Wrap UpAir Filter References

GMP References

Design References

Qualification References

HVAC system concepts
HVAC system-critical parameters

Cleanroom air classifications and explain how they are applied
Role of HVAC in protecting products
Examine typical HVAC system designs utilized for bulk, oral solid dosage, sterile, biopharmaceutical, and packaging and warehousing operations
Understand the basics of process laboratory HVAC
HEPA filter theory, application, monitoring, testing, and repair

Cite HVAC maintenance requirements


Tests Description
Airflow Volume / Velocity Readings Assures that both unidirectional and non-unidirectional flow areas are properly balanced and unidirectional zones are maintaining proper air patterns

Room Air Exchange rates States if the area is meeting its design airflow
HEPA Filter Integrity Testing Tests HEPA filters and system for leaks
Non-viable Particle Counting Reports the amount of airborne particulate of a specified size in the clean zone
Temperature / Relative Humidity Testing Examines whether the air HVAC controls are functioning properly and uniformly
Pressure Cascade Monitoring Verifies that room differential pressures are operating according to design
Air balancing Adjusts airflow in the air handling systems to achieve design airflow, room air exchange rates, and pressure cascade

Airflow Visualization Testing Qualitatively verifies airflow direction using a source of visible fog
Viable Environmental Monitoring Samples both the air and surface for microbe enumeration and identification
Compressed Gas Testing Assures that the compressed gas sources meet the requirements of the controlled environment for contamination and microorganisms
Lighting, vibration, and sound tests – assures worker comfortAll other special tests from the ISO/IEST guidelines



 References: [cGMP], Institute of Environmental Sciences Technologies [IEST], and International Organization for Standardization [ISO].


Waste Water Systems

Sprinkler Systems

Steam Systems



Typical Water Management Systems used by manufacturing and power plants include the following processes:






Iron Removal


Reduction of Inorganic and Organic Material


Write to us Here

Write to us Here

Write to us Here


Article 1: Determining How Much Validation is Needed



Are you managing an unmaneagable process? What are the bottlenecks? Personnel, Systems, Budget, Seasonal Variations, Publicity, Vendors?

Personnel Bottlenecks: Rotten Apples: One employee...


PROJECT TRACKING:Conceptualization-Planning-Initiation--Evaluation-Closing-Monitoring; Concept on Paper-Concept on Plastic, Planning; Funding-Capital Costs-Acquisitions. Closing-Output-Handover-Long Term Support-Contract Closing: Documenting Deliverables-Lessons Learned-Possible Improvements

PROJECT MANAGEMENT: What is Project Management (PM)? What do Project Managers(PMN) do? Are you a Project Manager? Please share your perspective with us. Write to us!

Project Management (PM) does not deal with "Business as Usual", PM deals with projects or with tasks that have a beginning, middle and end, and evolve over the course of time until the project is handed over to a client.

PMN balance Budget, Time, and Money and Staff in the phases of Planning/Initation, overseeing Execution and Monitoring, Troubleshooting and Closing.

PMN execute in different ways under Information Technology, Biotech, or Construction. Generally PMN deal with Scheduling, Tracking, Budget Control, Risk Management, Strategizing, Quality Management, Workflow Control, involving Resource Allocation, Human Resource Management, Material Resource Management, and Tme Mangement.

Identify Deliverables: Benchmarks

Draft Project Plan:

Draft Project Checklists: Outline all Tasks needed to complete the project and check tasts as they are completed.

Update Stakeholders with Presentations


Value Management

This post is about learning the basic fundaments about calculating value, reducing losses, and understanding the constraints related to project management. The list will not be exhaustive, however, with your help this list can be refined and sharpened to focus on the more salient or pertinent calculations regarding this matter. Most projects can be manages with simple spreadsheets but Engineering Projects involve short term and long term predictions on the impact of expenditures on the overall budget and these considerations are communicated frequently to investors and stakeholders. The results of these calculations have imminent effects on the final physical structure and often lead to drastic project overhaul or expansions.

Planned value (PV): The approved budget for the work scheduled to be completed by a specified date; also referred to as the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS). The total PV of a task is equal to the task’s budget at completion (BAC)— the total amount budgeted for the task.

Earned value (EV): The approved budget for the work actually completed by the specified date; also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).

Actual cost (AC): The costs actually incurred for the work completed by the specified date; also referred to as the actual cost of work performed(ACWP).

Schedule variance (SV): The difference between the amounts budgeted for the work you actually did and for the work you planned to do. The SV shows whether and by how much your work is ahead of or behind your approved schedule.

Cost variance (CV): The difference between the amount budgeted and the amount actually spent for the work performed. The CV shows whether and by how much you’re under or over your approved budget.

Schedule performance index (SPI): The ratio of the approved budget for the work performed to the approved budget for the work planned. The SPI reflects the relative amount the project is ahead of or behind schedule, sometimes referred to as the project’s schedule efficiency. You can use the SPI to date to project the schedule performance for the remainder of the task.

Cost performance index (CPI): The ratio of the approved budget for work performed to what you actually spent for the work. The CPI reflects the relative value of work done compared to the amount paid for it, sometimes referred to as the project’s cost efficiency. You can use the CPI to date to project the cost performance for the remainder of the task.

Schedule and cost variances and performance indicators are defined mathematically as follows:

Schedule variance (SV) = Earned value (EV) – Planned value (PV)

Cost variance (CV) = Earned value (EV) – Actual cost (AC)

Schedule performance index (SPI) = Earned value (EV) / Planned value (PV)

Cost performance index (CPI) = Earned value (EV) / Actual cost (AC)

The final step when assessing task performance to date is to update what you expect your total expenditures will be upon task completion. Specifically, you want to determine the following:

PM: ISO3100 RISK MANAGEMENT Risks are about events that, when triggered, cause problems or benefits. Any event that may endanger achieving an objective partly or completely is identified as risk.

Identification: Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their potential severity of impact (generally a negative impact, such as damage or loss) and to the probability of occurrence. 

Assessment: Once risks have assessed, all techniques to manage the risk fall into one or more of these four major categories:

  • Avoidance (eliminate, withdraw from or not become involved)
  • Hazard Prevention: Prevent or Mitigate Emergencies: Identify sources of posible events that may trigger an emergency
  • Reduction: (optimize – mitigate):
  • Sharing: Transfer, Outsource,Insure)
  • Retention (accept and budget)
  • Implementation and Review: Evaluate whether the previously selected security controls are still applicable and effective

    Prioritizing the risk management processes too highly could keep an organization from ever completing a project or even getting started.

    Risk Analysis Tools:

    Fault tree analysis (FTA)

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

    Hazard and operability study (HAZOP)

    Risk traceability analysis

    Tracking Tables

    Identify (Source Risk) Analyze Response Control (Monitoring
    ID Description Category Probability Impact Added Days Status of Response Response Cost Total Cost
    x Chiller Efficiency Drop Utilities 0.01 High 4 Chiller Maintenance Pending $x,xxx.xx USD $x,xxx.xx USD

    Project Plan Template 1

    Scheduling Risks Template 1

    Methodologies and Project Life Cycles 1

    Project Management Certifications

    ENGINEERING TRENDS: PROJECT LIFE CYCLE Maintaining Structure vs Control: Planned Structure vs Regulated Chaos, vs Working under pressure vs Working without support or planned structure. Projects are literaly works in domestication... release the Kraken, and go get Excalibur to tame the beast, sometimes without support and in the best instances flowing with the right team work. We'll explore some keys in maintaining structure when the work environment tilts towards chaos and unpredictability.

    Do you really need MS Project?


  • Recruit, interview and select staff and/or volunteers with appropriate skills for the project activities.

  • Keep personnel documentation private and confidential. Avoid unauthorized personnel access to employee files.

  • Establish key policies and guideliness for "business conduct" in all aspects of the organization, from the parking lot, to attire, to work functions outside of the project site.

  • Track personnel development and provide Career Tracks to ensure Vertical Development of Human Resources.

  • Identify when external sources like Consultants and Contractors are needed.
  • ENGINEERING TRENDS: PROJECT LIFE CYCLE: Maintaining Structure vs Control: Planned Structure vs Regulated Chaos, vs Working under pressure vs Working without support or planned structure. Projects are literaly works in domestication... release the Kraken, and go get Excalibur to tame the beast, sometimes without support and in the best instances flowing with the right team work. We'll explore some keys in maintaining structure when the work environment tilts towards chaos and unpredictability.

    Do you really need MS Project?




    ENGINEERING TRENDS: QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: Trends in Administrations systems, philosophical differences between QMS, Hierarchical and Organizational Differences.

    Drug Manufacturing Quality Documentation: Managing a Drug Manufacturing Site requires precise control over all steps that impact the Identity, Purity, Efficacy, and Quality of the product. The high level of precision requires that manufacturing tasks are well understood by personnel and these tasks are not limited to steps making the drug product. Control requires ALL areas to provide the highest standards of as required by local and international standardizing and regulatory bodies.

  • Water

  • Air

  • Waste Disposal
  • Raw Chemicals
  • Manufacturing Instruction
  • Product Specification Sheet
  • Intermediate Process Chemicals
  • Finished Products
  • Imported Manufacturing Materials
  • Imported Packaging Materials
  • Packed Finished Product
  • Cafeteria Food
  • Pest Control
  • Automation Control
  • Environmental Control

  • Personel Security

  • Document Security

  • Patient Information
  • Data Storage
  • Data Analysis

  • Manufacturing Instructions
  • Laboratory Protocols
  • Health and Safety
  • Incident Reporting
  • Natural Disasters Coordination

    Have you covered all aspects of the working site? Are you missing an area? Would you imagine working in areas where tasks were not defined? Documentation needs to describe the areas, processes, machines, units as well as steps, calculations and precautions.

    There are many more areas that require precise documentation to provide the rigor and control required to produce a high quality chemical product.

    In order to produce and control such documents facilities have document management systems that provide easy access to employees. Employees become familiar with the tasks before executing them and with these documents employees are Trained-and-Tested to provide a level of proficiency prior to execution. These documents are "Living Documents", what this means is that once drafted the documents are not destroyed. Instead they go through a lifetime of changes and these changes however minor are docmented and tracked within the document so people reading the document can see the changes to the document through revisions.

    Changes do not become effective until 75-85% of all employees have been trained on the changes. So after rigorous control it is expeced that changes howere impactful or minor are taken into account by all employees driving continuous improvement.


  • PROCESS TRENDS: PROCESS TRANSFORMATIONS: A -> B, A + B -> C + A + B, A + B -> C + D etc. understanding the fundaments of chemical change, from stoichiometry to physicochemical separators to catalysis, mutations, and nuclear transformations.

    PROCESS TRENDS: SYNTHESIS: CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS: How to control reactions in vessels, Stirred Tanks, CSTR, Continuous Flow and Batch Synthesis. Catalysis, absorbtion, adsorption, External vs Internal Controls, Simulations, Scale up - Scale down, Units of Control.

    PROCESS TRENDS: SERIALIZATION, GLOBAL HARMONIZATION: Packaging, Stacking, Monitoring, Storage, Shipment and Control.

    Global harmonization


    PROCESS TRENDS: INSPECTIONS Auditing, Requirements, Compliance and Remediation Engineering.

    New Medical Products

    What considerations are needed to Manufacture a New Product

    New Drug Application

    New Dietary Supplements

    New Biomedical Devices

    New Drug Application

    Investigational New Drug

      Investigational IND includes:

    • Animal study data and toxicity (side effects that cause great harm) data

    • Manufacturing information

    • Clinical protocols (study plans) for studies to be conducted

    • Data from any prior human research

    • Information about the investigator

      Permissions to transport drugs across state boundaries.


      Medical Review

    New Drug Application

    Drug Patent

    Laboratory Data, Patient Data

    Clinical Trials 21CFR312

      Drugs Medical Devices
    Phase 1

    Tested on Healthy Patients

    Maximum Tolerated Dose. Safety, Dose threshold, Biological Therapeutic Effect

    Size of Population <100


    Phase 2

    Tested on Patients with the Condition

    Side Effects


    Phase 3

    Tested on General Population Volunteers

    100-1000 Patients

    Comparing Placebo and Current Therapies to New Therapy






    New Dietary Supplements

    Dietary Supplement Information for Industry

    New Biomedical Devices

    Therapeutic Biologic Application (BLA)



    International Medical regulations

    European Medical Agency

    EDQM European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare

    Japanese Pharmacopoeia

    Japan Medical Devices

    Japan Medical Regulations




    Storage and Handling of Chemicals

    Maximum Allowable Quantities

    International Fire Code

    Ladder Supports and Clearances

    Voltage Requirements and Related Ground Faulting

    Laminar Flow Hood Qualification

    Clean Room Qualification



    Fire Management Consulting: Prevention, Planning, Rescue Operations, Hazard Identification, Communication Protocols, Adherence and Enforcement of Policy are all elements of Fire Management

    Goals(General): Prevent Injury, Preventl loss of Life, Prevent loss of Property

    Objective (Metrics): Prevent ocurrence of fire and explosion (#). Provide Means of Escape (t). Contain, Control and Suppress fire and explosion origins. Decrease total number of work related casualties (h). Decrease total number of loss work hours. Decrease total number of work related injuries. Increase the level of safety by introducing added meeasures of protection in each task performed.

    Fire Prevention Plans must be kept in writing and must be communicated orally to all personnel.

    Establish a Storage and Handling Zone. Isolate zone from heat sources at least 35ft away. Consider mass transfer of vapors. Consider also temperature effects that may volatilize liquids far away from a heat source.

    Isolate the Handling Zone from electric conduction by grounding the casing.

    In the Event of a fire Understand the Elements of the Fire Triangle and how to isolate the heat source from the oxidant, or how to lower the temperature of the fire.

    Know Fire Chemistry: Stoichiometry, LEL, UEL, LFL, UFL, Heat of Combustion, Latent Heat, Heat of Vaporization, Conduction, Convetion, Radiation, Reid Vapor Pressure, Ignition energy, Ignition Temperature, Heat Value, BLEVE, Vapor Cloud Explosion, Overpressure, Backdraft, Flashover, Flash Point,

    Causes of Explosions: Spark, Arc, Heat Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Deflagration, Collision, Friction, Nature, Chemical Reaction, Nuclear Reaction

    Two Types of Explosion: Deflagration vs Detonation

    Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the LEL and UEL. The Flash Point is the lowest temperature and pressure at which a vapor/liquid may spark or ignite.

    Explosions are divided into two different categories. Deflagration and Detonations, both invove equilibrium procesess of a gas, an oxidizer, and heat in a medium undergoing expansion. Deflagrations occur with mass transfer at low velocites directed at the reaction zone wheras Detonations are violent and the expansive gas is the reactive zone.

    Design Considerations: Spacing, Protocols, Procedures, Sewage Control, Diking, Housekeeping, Tool Inspections, Heat source elimination, area desinations, Training.

    Fire and Electricity: Eliminate Arc, or Sparks by using rated currents far from the boundary limits for conduction or arcing of current. Ground, and Bond equipment, tanks, storage bins, Understand Charge dissipation, Capacitance, Resistivity, Induction

    Understand Fixed and Portable Fire Protection Systems (OSHA29CFR1910.160): Extinguishing Agent, Nozzle, Piping, Control Pane, Alarm, Detector, Visual and Audible Warnings.. Semianual inspections, Desired extinguishing concentrations shall be dispensed under 30seconds.

    Fire Extinguishers: Located every 75ftA/D fire, 50ftBfire, when close to a flammable liquid storage area. 1 Fire Extinshisher per 3000sqft of building area.

    Fire Extinguishing Materials
    Substance Supresses Capacity
    Water A Fire  

    B/C Fires:

    Oil Fires

    Gas Fires

    Electrical Fires

    22, 9, 7, 5, 3kg.
    Ammonium Phosphate ABC Fires 10, 5, 1kg
    Halon ABC Fires low mass
    Sodium Chloride C Fires dry powder only
    Sodium Carbonate C Fires dry powder only


    PPE Capacities
    Fire Hose   100gpm-1000gpm
    Fire Truck    
    Dry Chemical   Hydrostatic Test 6 years


    PROCESS TRENDS: AUDITING Supply Chain, Vendors, Internal Auditing



    Develop Cost Reduction Strategy

    Develop Service Requirements:
    Material Specifications for product, packaging, and labeling
    Testing requirements
    Quantities required
    Shipping Timeframes

    Vendor List: QA Screens Vendor List for Compliance issues from FDA, Recalls and Warning Letters. Operational Licenses, Certifications, Company Structure, Data Management and General Operational Qualit of the Vendor is Rated by QA.

    Vendor Selection: Involve a Cross Functional Team: R&D, Engineering, QA, Corporate.  Material selection impacts directly product quality and company identity. All players should be involved in detecting vendor strengths and weaknesses.

    Perform Facility Audit: Confirm strategic, logistic and productio infrastructure is present. Note any Structural issues that may affect product characteristics. Address long term manufacturing plan with site leaders to ensure no manufacturing changes will impact your supply.

    Develop Quality Agreement: Agree that changes in the manufacturing process or issues related to FDA inspections are reported and prevent their impact in your manufacturing process. Ensure that CAPAs, OOS, Customer Complaints are reported and addressed.

    Monitor Qualification Status: Re-qualification process and on-site audit




    Certifications: QUALITY: ASQ: Master Black Belt (MBB) Trains and coaches Black Belts and Green Belts. Functions more at the Six Sigma program level by developing key metrics and the strategic direction. Acts as an organization’s Six Sigma technologist and internal consultant. Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) Understands Six Sigma philosophies and principles, including the supporting systems and tools. Demonstrates team leadership and understands all aspects of the DMAIC model in accordance with Six Sigma principles. Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB)Supports a Six Sigma Black Belt by analyzing and solving quality problems and is involved in quality-improvement projects. Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB) Has a small role, interest, or need to develop foundational knowledge of Six Sigma, whether as an entry level employee or an executive champion. ref ASQ




    Key words: Safety, Identity, Strength, Quality, Purity... Quality Control Unit...Batch Records Controls, Uniformity,Complaints, Surfaces not reactive, additive, absortive; Sanitization vs Sterilization; Justification of Deviations; Pyrogen, Containers, Second Person Verificatin, In-process testing; Bioburden, Time limitations, Reprocessing, 100% Visual/electronic Inspection. Tamper-Evident, Laboratory, Stability Testing, Release, Warehousing, Reserve Samples, Laboratory Animals, Records and Results. Are we now experts? Certainly not! Compliance is an ongoing Business, and Ongoing opportunity to correct everyday problems, new products require new solutions and as technology evolves, new facets require polishing by regulatory compliance. Quality is by Design!

    CLEANING VALIDATION: The following bullets come from the Institute for Thermal Processing Specialists:

    The pointers are considered voluntary guidelines:


  • Sterilization: Absence of Bacterial growth. Sterility Assurance Level of 1 in 1,000,000 contamination probability. Exponential bacterial elimination
  • Dvalue = Dose required to eliminate 90% of all microorganisms. Relates to microorganism resiliency. Log of Surviving Organisms vs Time.

  • Methods of Sterilization: Moist Heat, Dry heat, Gas, Radiation, UV, Gamma, Filtration.

  • Lethality Factor F: measure of capacity to kill bacteria as a function of temperature
  • 121C
  • 132C Metals: Passivation layer preservation. Less micro fractures, less water deposition.
  • Logarithmic Cycle Reduction (LCR) – A commonly used measure of the efficacy of a sterilization process, it is the decimal logarithm of the ratio of the initial count (N0) of a well defined micro-organism and the count of the same organism (NR) after the sterilization process has been run. 0 10 log R N LCR N =
  • Aseptic Zone – The aseptic zone includes all direct and indirect product contact pathways and surfaces that must be brought to a condition of commercial sterility prior to the start of filling operations. Pictures, drawings, and schematics may be used to document the aseptic zone.
  • Spore Kits.

  • Count Reduction Test – The Count Reduction test is based on knowing the initial count on the inoculated carrier/substrate and then recovering and enumerating the number of microorganisms that have survived the sterilization process. This method requires the presence (recovery) and enumeration of surviving test microorganisms. The experiment should be designed so that the colony forming units are in the countable range when the target LCR is achieved. Absence of surviving organisms indicates that the target LCR has been exceeded.

  • End Point Test – The End Point test is based on exposing inoculated carriers/substrates with known initial counts to the sterilization process, incubating the carriers/substrates using appropriate methods (e.g., media and growth temperature) and observing for growth of surviving microorganisms. A binary response—growth or no growth—is obtained, where “no growth” implies sterility of the sample. Estimation of mean survivor load is done using statistical tools when several replicate samples are available, some of which show growth. This method can also be applied to a single inoculated sample; in that case, no growth (sterility) of the sample is required for the test to be considered successful though the uncertainty associated with the binary information should be taken into account.

  • Multiple thermocouples throughout chamber (not inside product containers) to determine effect of load configuration on temperature distribution temperature distribution for all loads using all container sizes used in production should be tested –position of thermocouples should be documented Slowest to heat/cold spots in each run should be documented, inlcuding the drain –repeat runs should be performed to check variability temperature distribution profile for each chamber load configuration should be documented


  • Heat Penetration Studies to detect the maximum and minimum temperature within all loads
  • All parts of each load must be on contact with steam
  • Need to determine lowest and highest temperature locations and slowest and fastest to heat locations (measured inside product containers)
  • Need to consider all variables such as container size, design, material, viscosity of solution and fill volume. Container with maximum fill volume and slowest to heat solution should be used
  • Maximum and Minimum load configurations for each sterilization cycle using routine cycle parameters
  • Biological challenge studies
    • Used when Probability of Survival approach is used
    • May not be necessary when cycle is > 121°C for 15 minutes (except US and Australia)
    • Biological indicators (BI) containing spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are most commonly used (considered “worst case”).
    • BIs containing other organisms may be used
    • performance studies based on product bioburden require a considerable amount of work
    • BI should be placed throughout the load, adjacent to thermocouples, at “cold spots” and slowest to heat locations (identified during heat penetration studies)
    • any growth is unacceptable unless processing errors demonsrated
    • Each sterilization cycle must be monitored
    • temperature, time and pressure recorded
    • temperature recorder independent from cycle controller
    • second independent temperature recorder
    • drain temperature should be recorded
    • chemical and biological indicators (if applicable)
  • Altitude and environmental temperatures may impact the effect of kill kinetics (humidity, barometric pressure, environmental temperature, and dew point) for newly installed and relocated systems, even if they were validated elsewhere (e.g., tropics vs. arid or sea level vs. high altitude).

    Identification of Critical Factors and Operational Ranges. The performance of the sterilization process is linked to the maintenance and control of a set of defined critical factors:Parameters to evaluate as critical factors may include, but are not limited to:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Relative humidity (e.g., dew point)
  • Elevation
  • Chemical sterilant concentration
  • Sterilant flow rate (e.g., high pressure hot water)
  • Sterilant residence time/contact time • Sterilant phase characteristics (e.g., vapor, liquid, spray, fog, or mist)
  • Radiation intensity and dose
  • Piping and ductwork design
  • Presence of optional components or devices such as head space injection
  • Activation timing of valve actuators, pumps, heating elements
  • Transition to next state of operation
  • Chemical sterilant removal
  • Package splicing
  • Surface tension
  • Interruptions, short stops and jams
  • Effect of concurrent practices (e.g., product path sterilization concurrent with aseptic zone sterilization)

  • Identification of Worst Case Conditions 6.5.1. Microbiological validation testing is often conducted under a pre-defined set of realistic operative conditions under which the sterilization process is expected to be the lowest. 6.5.2. Critical factors of the sterilization process must be defined with the appropriate values or levels at which the factor is critical to the process that delivers a commercially sterile system or package. 6.5.3. Points to consider when establishing the worst case condition include, but are not limited to: • Limiting values, both high and low, for identified critical factors • Permitted variation ranges for critical factors/parameters inclusive of the procedures (e.g. calibration) and instruments used to assure that the permitted variation is not exceeded. • Allowed manual operations or interventions • Interactions among critical factors, other variables and conditions, resulting in a reduction in sterilization process delivery
  • Interfaces between the aseptic zone and ancillary equipment • Interfaces between different sterilization processes within the aseptic zone • Sterilant contact time • Loading and speed of conveying systems through the package sterilization process and into the aseptic zone of the filler • Motion of conveying equipment • Hot and/or cold re-start of equipment • Ramp-up and ramp-down • Changeovers, including product and package • Brand new versus aged machines • Presence of remnant containers in the aseptic zone, partial rolls • Splicing of rolls, longitudinal seal strips • Idling in a sterile mode – limits before re-CIP and re-SIP 6.5.4.
  • The worst case condition is not necessarily setting all critical factors and other sterilization parameters to the allowed minimum (e.g., temperature) and maximum (e.g., throughput) values.
  • 6.5.5. Note that the alarm structure on the filling machine under study might prevent the machine from running in the established worse case conditions. In such a case, the relevant alarms should be disabled until the validation is completed. This would require alarm verification to be conducted or repeated at the end of a successful microbiological validation.
  • Outline of a Microbiological Challenge Test
    • 6.3.1. Identify critical factors and operational ranges. (See 6.4) 6.3.2.
    • Define the worst case conditions for the sterilization process and the specific filler and package being validated. (See 6.5) 6.3.3.
    • Identify the locations/boundaries in the aseptic zone and package surface to be challenged, for example, pictures, marking a P&ID or other equipment drawing. (See 6.6-6.8) 6.3.4.
    • Develop a protocol for the validation testing (See 6.9) that addresses the following:
  • The test methodology that will be used for each sterilization process is defined. (See 6.9.1) The target organism is identified and the desired LCR is established. (See 6.9.2)


  • The test microorganism (surrogate), including resistance to the specific sterilization process being validated, is characterized. (See 6.9.3) The expected LCR of the test organism is defined. (See 6.9.4)


  • The suitable carrier or substrate being used is identified. Note that different carriers may be needed in some locations or due to differences in sterilization processes. (6.10.1)
  • A suitable inoculation method is developed. (See 6.10.2)
  • The appropriate inoculation load is determined. (See 6.10.3)
  • Inoculated carriers are placed in predetermined locations. (See 6.10.4)
  • Microbiological recovery methods are defined and the actual load of the test microorganism on the carrier/substrate is determined. (See 6.10.5)
  • Culture media, incubation temperature considerations are made.
  • Set aseptic filling machine and package sterilization processes to predefined worst-case conditions for the validation test.
  • Execute the validation tests.
  • Recover the exposed carriers or packages and determine the outcome of the test based on the microbiological validation method chosen. Tailing and inactivation effects due to the presence of residual sterilant should be confirmed as not being present. 6.3.8.
  • Document results.
  • Confirm identity of any recovered microorganisms (may be dependent on method selected).
  • Repeat replicate studies as defined in the protocol.
  • Analyze the data.
  • Inoculation Method Methods such as spraying or depositing drops may be used to directly inoculate carriers and surfaces. When selecting a method, the following points should be considered:

    LogD vs T:   da Z. para un log10 reduction de D
    F(12D)= Kill time 12 fold reduction of known



    Use on: Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, Thermodegradable or Thermosusceptible materials.




    SAL of 10^-6

    Probability of a viable micro-organism present on the device must be equal to or less than 1 in a million.

    One in a million (or less) devices are expected to remain contaminated after terminal sterilization.

    A sterility test on 10-100 samples isn’t even close to reliably measuring a failure rate of 1/1,000,000 devices.

    CFU Unit of Viable bacterial or fungall cells reproducing by Binary Fission
    [kGy] absorbed units / unit mass
    D10 [kGy]

    1 log reduction on viable count.

    90% reduction of total count.

    Sample Item Portion Proportion of Sample manipulable in a laboratory.
    Sterility Test



    selected sterilization doses of 25 kGy and 15 kGy. The method for 25 kGy is applicable to products having an average bioburden less than or equal to 1,000 CFUs (colony forming units) per device. The method for 15 kGy is applicable to products having an average bioburden less than or equal to 1.5 CFUs per device.

    VDmax Method: Justification for a sterilising dose of 25 kGy or 15 kGy Bellow is an example of the procedure for the VDmax 25 method on multiple production batches

    1- Obtain product samples The product samples must be representative of routinely sterilised products.

    2- Determine the average microbial load of 3 batches of 10 pieces

    3- According to the table of ISO11137-2, determine the verification dose

    4- Conduct verification dose experiments; irradiate 10 products at the verification dose and perform a sterility test on each of the products

    5- Interpret the results: Accept the 25 kGy sterilisation dose if 0 or 1 of the 10 pieces is positive. Conduct verification dose confirmation experiments if 2 are positive. Do not accept the verification if there are more than 2 positives 40 products are required for this method. This method is only viable for validating sterilising doses of 15 or 25 kGy.

    Method 1

    1- Select the sterility assurance level (SAL) and select 10 product samples from 3 independent production batches (or 30 samples)

    2- Determine the average microbial load of the 3 batches of 10 items (method based on ISO 11737-1)

    3- Obtain the verification dose (referring to table 5 of ISO11137-2)

    4- Conduct verification dose experiments on 100 irradiated pieces (method based on ISO 11737- 2)

    5- Interpret the results

    6- Establish the sterilisation dose based on the results (maximum of 2 positives out of 100 pieces) 130 products are therefore required for this method. The advantage of this method is that it enables any sterilising dose to be validated.

    Method 2A

    Method 2B

    1- Select the sterility assurance level (SAL) and obtain samples of the product (at least 280 samples for 2 independent production batches) The product samples must be representative of the products routinely sterilised.

    2- Conduct the incremental dose experiments; irradiate 20 pieces at incremental doses of 2 kGy beginning with the 2 kGy dose and using at least 9 values. This is to be done for each of the 3 batches involved. Perform a sterility test on each of the products.

    3- Conduct verification dose experiments; irradiate 100 pieces at the verification dose and perform a sterility test on each of the products

    4- Examine the results 5- Establish the sterilising dose based on the results

    Performance Qualification (PQ)

    Product PQ: carried out under the supervision of the product manufacturer. This determines compliance of the sterilization process on the product.

    1) Dose Mapping: The first step of the validation is to verify that every product in the sterilization container receives a dose complying with the specifications (for example 25-40 kGy). As the dose received by the products can depend of the density of the products and their position in the sterilization container, before performing the dose mapping validation, the product loaded patter shall be established. With this product loaded pattern, dosimeters will be placed to measure the dose received by the products at different points of the sterilization container.

    2) Validation of the sterilising dose: This part of the product PQ makes it possible to validate the minimum irradiation dose required to sterilise the product (i.e. to guarantee a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10-6). 3) Validation of the maximum dose: This part of the validation procedure verifies by means of various kinds of tests that product characteristics are not degraded by irradiation, even at the maximum dose.







    How can you determine that a new process is in control?



    Analytics, Mechanistics, Statistical Mechanics, Risk Analysis, Severity, Probability, Detection. Risk Analysis, ANOVA, MANOVA, MANCOVA, SAS, MATLAB, GREEN BELT, BLACK BELT, 3.4/10^6, SCAR, DFSS: QdB: DMAIC: define-> complete task. Big Data, ANOVA, P-Value, Gauge R&R, Test Method Validation,



    (USL- Avg.)/3σ or (Avg. - LSL.)/3σ

    Engineering Tolerance / Natural Tolerance

    Processes in control are close to Cp = 2.

    This parameter tells you what is the "process spread" assuming that manufacturing is normal.

    Cp shows whether the distribution can potentially fit inside the specification

    A high Cp tells you that variation in output is low around process specification.

    Uses Subgroup Variation.


    Cpk = Min(CpU,CpL)

    Ability to produce outcome within specification

    Desribes how mean is centered within Specification. Shows whether the overall average is centrally located.

    Cpk =2 means your width can grow 2 times before going OOS

    Cpk can never exceed Cp.

    Cp can be seen as the potential Cpk if the overall average is centrally set. If Cp is 1.20 and Cpk is 0.69. This shows that the distribution can potentially fit within the specification. However, the overall average is currently off center. The Cpk value does not state whether the overall average is offset on the upper or lower side.

    Cpk=1.0), a process will produce approximately 99.73% good product or .27% bad product. At Cpk = 1.33.the process will manufacture approximately 99.9937% good product or .0063% bad product.



    (Upper Spec - Lower Spec) / 6 sigma


    (USL- Avg.)/3σ or (Avg. - LSL.)/3σ

    Uses Overall Variation


    Ppk = Min(PpU,PpL)

    Sshould be close to Cpk if process is stable and variation is small.

    Estimator of process control before process has been controlled, usually when process has output a low number of products Ppk is used to determine how "in control" a process is.


    Accuracy = Xbar - X

    Residuals = Difference between observed and Estimated value

    P/T = 6sigma / USL - LSL  
    P/T < 0.1 Acceptable  
    0.1 < P/T < 0.3 Marginaly Acceptable  
    P/T > 0.3 Unacceptable.  
    Repeatability: Equipment Variation EV  
    Reproducibility: Appraiser Variation AV  
    R&R= (EV^2+AV^2)^(1/2)  
    Part Variation PV = R*K  
    Total Variation (TV) = ((R&R)^2)+(PV)^2)^(1/2)  


    Nelson Rules

    Special Variation Rules:

    Rule 1: 3std from mean

    Rule 2: 9 consecutive points above or below mean

    Rule 3: 6 or more points continually increasing or decreasing

    Rule 4: 14 or more points continually oscillating.

    Rule 5: 2 or more points are consecutively more than 2std from mean in same direction.

    Rule 6: 4 or more points are consecutively more than 1std from mean in same direction.

    Rule 7: 15 or more points are consecutively within 1std from mean.

    Rule 8: 8 points are out outside of 1 std deviation from mean in both directions.

    Tolerance Difference between the USL and LSL.
    Confidence Interval

    "We are 95% confident that our interval will contain the sample mean of the population... that is to say that we are 95 times out of a 100 finding the mean of the population within our confidence interval and 5 times out of a 100 we are not. 95% speaks about the process of finding the confidence interval and has Nothing to do with the mean of the population"

    Reference 1

    Reference 2

    Power of Test


    Increase: Required Sample Size, n; Detectable Difference, between the mean under H0 and H1, µ0 − µ1 ; Level of significance, α;

    • Decrease: Variability

    Gauge R&R

    Gauge R&R is a test of variance between the effect of The Part, The Operator and the System

    • Whether your measurement system variability is small compared with the process variability.
    • How much variability in the measurement system is caused by differences between operators.
    • Whether your measurement system is capable of discriminating between different parts.

    Variation = Vpart + Vgauge(R&R)

    Crossed R&R: Xbar and R

    Crossed gage R&R study
    A study in which each operator measures each part. This study is called crossed because the same parts are measured by each operator multiple times. To perform a crossed gage R&R study in Minitab, choose Stat >Quality Tools > Gage Study > Gage Study (Crossed).
    Often, you will use a crossed gage R&R study to determine how much of your process variation is due to measurement system variation.
    Nested gage R&R study
    A study in which only one operator measures each part, usually because the test destroys the part. This study is called nested because one or more factors is nested under another factor and, thus, not crossed with the other factors.
    Expanded gage R&R study
    A study in which one or more of the following conditions exists:
    • More than two factors, usually, operator, gage, and part
    • Fixed or random factors
    • Both crossed and nested factors
    • An unbalanced design

    resolution= Sigma/Mu
    Accuracy : long term average : Xbar - X
    Accuracy: Linearity/Bias
    Precission: long term variability


    Nested R&R: 1op,

    Gauge Run Chart by Operator

    Repeatable: Instrument
    Reproducible: Operator

    COPQ: cost of poor quality.
    QFD:Qualify Function Deployment
    AIAG; Automotive Industry Action Group

    Z score

    Standardized value of how one score compares with Population in terms of Standard Deviations.A z-score equal to 1 represents an element that is 1 standard deviation greater than the mean.

    Z = (x - mu) / sigma

    Z test Hypothesis Testing PDF

    Z Score PPT


    Hypothesis Testing

    Null Hypothesis

    Statement of rejection adopted to commence a statistical analysis.

    Null hypotheses are not inferred directly.The Null hypothesis is rejected by testing the validity of the opposite statement.

    Null Hypothesis Decision  
      True False  
    Fail to Reject Correct Decision (probability = 1 - α) Type II Error - fail to reject the null when it is false (probability = β)  
    Reject Type I Error - rejecting the null when it is true (probability = α) Correct Decision (probability = 1 - β)

    P Value

    Small p-value (typically ≤ 0.05) indicates STRONG evidence AGAINST the NULL hypothesis, so you reject the null hypothesis.

    Large p-value (> 0.05) indicates WEAK evidence AGAINST the NULL hypothesis, so you fail to reject the null hypothesis

    p-values very close to the cutoff (0.05) are considered to be marginal (could go either way).

    Error Tipo 1

    False Positive: Incorrect Rejection of null hypothesis.

    The probability of making a type I error is α, which is the level of significance you set for your hypothesis test.

    An α of 0.05 indicates that you are willing to accept a 5% chance that you are wrong when you reject the null hypothesis.

    For a fixed sample size, the probability of making a Type II error is inversely related to the probability of making a Type I error. Thus, in order to achieve a desirable power for a fixed level of significance, the sample size will generally need to increase.

    EX.: Null: Two medications are the same. A type I error occurs if the researcher rejects the null hypothesis and concludes that the two medications are different when, in fact, they are not. 

    Error Tipo 2

    False Negative: Failure of rejection of False Null Hypothesis.

    The probability of making a type II error is β, which depends on the power of the test. You can decrease your risk of committing a type II error by ensuring your test has enough power. You can do this by ensuring your sample size is large enough to detect a practical difference when one truly exists.

    EX.:Null Two medications are the same.  the researcher concludes that the medications are the same when, in fact, they are different

    Isolating Special Causes

    Pareto Charts

    Ishiawa Diagrams

    SIPOC: Supplier Input Process Output Customers


    Group Effort driven towards Continuous Improvement



    T Test

    Hypothesis test comparing the Mean of a Population vs a Reference Mean

    Student's T test: small population, deviates from Normal Distribution, gives a Probability Density Function.

    1 sample T-Test compares mean of a population to the reference standard when the standard deviation of the population is unknown.

    2-sample T-Test compares means of two populations.

    T Paired: Compares two ligated observations. Ex.: Before and After weight loss.

    T value Measures Difference in terms of Standard Deviations. The greater T value (+/-) the greater evidence against (to reject) Null Hypothesis
    P value

    Probabilty that the Two Sided T value is above and below the T value in a T distribution.

    When the Null hypothesis is true the T value falls in this probability region with.

    High P value = True Null.

    Low P value = Data does not contradict Null Hypothesis.

    P values are calculated on the assumption that the Null is true for the population and that the difference between populations is by random effects.


    Analysis of Variance: Hypothesis test that allows the comparison of variation between groups.

    F-Statistic: Similar to T-Statistic from a T Test.

    Normality Test

    Skewness and Kurtosis should be close to 0 in a Normality Test.

    Shapiro Wilk Test with p < 0.05

    System Suitability Test to ensure Systems, Analytes, Columns, Reagents and Operators are functioning properly prior to formal Analysis Execution.
    Limit of Linearity See Test Method Validation
    Limit of Detection See Test Method Validation
    Attribute Charts


    Attribute Charts
      Defectives Defects
    Sample Size Constant NP C
    Variable Sample Size P U

    NP-Chart: for monitoring the number of times a condition occurs, relative to a constant sample size, when each sample can either have this condition, or not have this condition

    P-Chart: for monitoring the percent of samples having the condition, relative to either a fixed or varying sample size, when each sample can either have this condition, or not have this condition

    c-Chart: for monitoring the number of times a condition occurs, relative to a constant sample size, when each sample can have more than one instance of the condition.

    u-Chart: for monitoring the percent of samples having the condition, relative to either a fixed or varying sample size, when each sample can have more than one instance of the condition.

    DOX Design of Experiments

    References: ASQ, ICH

    HVAC BasicsAir Filters
    HVAC Controls
    Air Balance
    Cleanroom Basics

    Boilers: Boiler Video


    [cGMP], Institute of Environmental Sciences Technologies [IEST], and International Organization for Standardization [ISO].

    Airflow volume / velocity readings - assures that both unidirectional and non-unidirectional flow areas are properly balanced and unidirectional zones are maintaining proper air patterns

    Room air exchange rates - states if the area is meeting its design airflow
    HEPA filter integrity testing - tests HEPA filters and system for leaks
    Non-viable particle counting - reports the amount of airborne particulate of a specified size in the clean zone
    Temperature / relative humidity testing - examines whether the air HVAC controls are functioning properly and uniformly
    Pressure cascade monitoring - verifies that room differential pressures are operating according to design

    Optional tests include:

    Air balancing - adjusts airflow in the air handling systems to achieve design airflow, room air exchange rates, and pressure cascade

    Airflow visualization testing – qualitatively verifies airflow direction using a source of visible fog
    Viable environmental monitoring [EM] - samples both the air and surface for microbe enumeration and identification

    Compressed gas testing [compressed dry air (CDA) testing] – assures that the compressed gas sources meet the requirements of the controlled environment for contamination and microorganisms

    Lighting, vibration, and sound tests – assures worker comfort

    All other special tests from the ISO/IEST guidelines


    SIX SIGMA: One Sigma, Two Sigma, Three Sigma, Four Sigma, Five Sigma, Six Sigma... yeah... we got there... is it that simple? SSSFFF currently at one sigma...Statistical Tools allow to predict future failures when past behavior is well understood. For this the variables affecting the process need to be well understood and well accounted. Enter Six Sigma...


    ENGINEERING TRENDS: STATISTICS ANALYSIS: All statistical analysis rest on IMPLEMENTATION. All numbers are followed by Human Decision Factors HDF and are Masked by interpretaion of the Statistics. Clear understanding of what the statistic represents and THE LIMITS of the refered to Statistical Analysis will incide in the Decision Making Process DMK. So at the the end of the Analytical process what you need to know is that you have successfully completed a DFSSQBDSASSCARQEQAIQOQFATHTetc... the point is to guide events to ZWR0 error. Statistics are extremely powerful.

    Computational power presents the ability of modeling and making very accurate predictions in a variety of PROCESS or SYSTEM model analysis. Although advanced Mathematical Skills allow interpretation it is through experience of MODEL ADJUSTMENT that Statistical Analysis tour-de-forces into a Continous Monitoring Program.

    Implementation of Continuous Monitoring Programs are the result of Human and Technological capabilities. Humans place the sensors and interpret data, technology gathers data and accelerates computational calculations. In the End, the role of the Quality Officer / sea un engineer, biologist, statistician, technician, operator / su rol es de 1-Ajustar el proceso para prevenir errores continuos. 2-Predecir modos de fallas para evitar tiempo perdido 3-Desarrollar estrategias que maximizen el uso de recursos 4-Ganar un entendimiento completo del proceso y sus variables para destinar recursos.

    Ya entendido esto y habiendo ganado un tren de conocimiento en estadistica aparecen los verdaderos retos de considerar las variables y tomar decisiones que consumiran tiempo y costo. Enter Design of Experiments DOX. Leaders in process inovation understand that the allocation of funds destined to the execution of tasks along with the managerial accumen of project leaders is the half fraction of the process improvement process gains equation. The flow of information from decision to execution may cascade through usually 3 to 5 levels (Cascade Decision Loss). In each step of the two way communication ladder data is Lost, Misinterpreted, mistakenly calculated, held back by professional jealousy, held back by impunctuality or even top level project rearrangements. It is in this crucial step that most companies loose their capital. Swift decision execution forecast are backlogged by every single employees ability to carry the execution of the plan without interference from outside influence to the project. Error prediction is an applied science highly valuable and continually reevaluated. The responsibility of managers in adequately interpreting data is also key in maintaining a forward vision of process improvement. Process analysis may get recirculated in the plan-do-check-check-plan cycle without swift determination of task execution. Understanding the 4th dimension is key in making accurate and timely Value Added solutions to improce Company Performance in the era of the information tsunami.

    Reconsidering the role of a leader in today's dynamic business models: Who leads a project? the CEO, the Manager, the Team Lead, the leading Tech, the rookie? In some business models the True Leader is the Rookie. The novice is outside the box, has no prejudice, has not formed clans within the company, has not offended the next door cubicle, and is looking to make an impression within the organization. More importantly than imagery, is the actual execution of the task and its measurable impact in daily, monthly and quarterly business goals. In a group of 4 there is a high probability that someone is prioritizing outside of the main focus and seeking to politicize a process advancement by acting in the last second. This is the same as taking the baton from a relay team in the last meter to claim the goal. This strategery is extremely common in the workplace because the work load is compressed. In compressed work loads there is no tracking of what each employee is executing and how the employee is prioritizing tasks, less time there is to rearrange priorities, so each employee is 'free' to jump in the final phase of the project once someone else took it from 1st gear to fourth. Sometimes the manager is aware of the individual and group contributions and eliminates the need for employees to make claims in the meeting spaces. Competition is key but the goal of any company is to align employees with the Common Goal. Microscopic gaining works to foment competition within a division but it may halter progress by creating internal division.

    What are some other instances where a manager needs to eye internal conflict?



    Normal Probability Plot: Tests data for normality, skewness, abnormal distributions. See Histogram.
    Histogram Graphical Representation of numerical data, like. a Bar chart relating the frequency of numerical values. It helps to visualize the type of distribution of the population, wether it is normal or skewed.

    Data is presented in Quartiles, Median, Maximum and Minimum values.

    Boxplot explanation

    X-Bar, R-Chart, vs Individual

    X-Bar charts the process mean through time.

    R-Chart charts the process range though time. Range = Xmax - Xmin

    Always look at R-Chart first. If R-Chart is Out of Control then the X-Bar chart is meaningless.

    R-Chart Trends: Repeated Values, OOS points.



    Whether mean differs significantly. Relates T values to P values.

    Chi squared

    Whether Categorical data from two data sets are related and if their differences are due to sampling methods or purely random effects.

    Chi square tests can only be used on actual numbers and not on percentages, proportions, means, etc.



    NC... NCs... material or process failures lead to NON Conformance... but who is conforming here? The Manufacturer is conforming to expected material performance and leading product performace by implementing quality measures to ensure the delivery of a good product to market.

    How is a Non Conformance generated? Again, a non conformance is Detected.

    Is a Non Conformance a CAPA? What is a CAPA? No, NCs may trigger a CAPA but an NC in itself is the detection of deviation or error in expected product, packaging or delivery performance.

    In the Industrial setting NCs are generated out of the high expentancy of delivering a high quality product. Any minor deviation in expected results is a Root Cause for an NC.

    NCs are investigated under several possible root causes stemming from Machine Behavior, Environmental Triggers, or Human Behavior and as such root causes are established when the determining factors have been dully and fully investigated. Machine Behavior takes into account the Tolerance and the acceptable boundary performance of the unit under NC. When a machine breaches Upper or Lower boundaries of performace an NC is triggered. Yet it is possible by Statistical means to detect NCs prior to occurring, like predicting the future.

    About Root Causes: Lets Establish Machine-Environment-Human as the three main Root causes. The cause-fault tree is then stemmed from Machine-Maintenance Schedule-Material Failure-Material Reaction-Unknown Material Reaction-Power Failure due to Machine action... then enter Environmental: Rain, Snow, Humidity, Lightning, Power Failure, and other unnatended keys to root an adverse action, then Human: Lack of Training, Lack of Attention, Excessive Overwork, Work Flow Interruptions, Social Interruptions, Error, or Slack. The classification of these Root Causes is set upon by Management in each Site. Managing these Root Causes is key in preventing future failures and understanding -in depth- the root cause is key in establishing the actions to prevent future occurrences. The balance of managing and correcting actions when humans are involved is a delicate subject because most of the times the Root Cause contains several main root causes in conjunction that lead to the NC event recorded.

    Denial, Commitment, Ethos, Diligence, Leadership, Accountability, Stewardship, Role Description, Task Load, Past Performance, Training Record, even Personal and Familial issues are brought into the balance equation to determine the root cause of an event. Recall that Process Failures are costly, sometimes very very costly, all the while there are internal competition within organizations that lead to push and pull responsability for the NC. While it is natural for humans to fail, and failure is even expected, it is also natural to -chide blame-......who wants chastisement? who takes blame? who is ultimately responsible and who takes the blame? These are very delicate issues and are at the core of what make up any major company, organization or work structure. It is why here at SSSSFFFF we are interested in learning your perspective in these details. How does Culture, Polical Stability, Economy, and Technology interplay. What are the best models of management and do they work in the corners of Earth? How can micromanagement and laxity coexist? Are there tools to measure this amalgam of Human-Machine-Environment issues or is it fundamentally decided by gut feelings or by numerical calculations? The answer is always yes. Write to us at for your perspective.

    Return to Site Menu


    Tanks are vessels where materials are stored temporarily from years to seconds or permanently from decades to centuries. The Dead Sea Scrolls where in a tank (open top ceramic tank). Take Fukushima, more than Half a Billion Tons of Radioactive Water are currently stored in Radioactive Tanks. Only a simple leak from one of these tanks spilled a material that takes Hundreds of Millions of years to decompose and spreading cancerous radioactive radiation anywhere it remains. The importance of a Tank. Here at SSSFFF we explore the materials contruction, surface finish, wall width, hydrostatic pressure, gravity pressure, gauge pressure, vents, inlets and outlets of the Tank. How does the tank fill. What is the Tank Chemistry. Is there a Precipitate formed by decomposition, or Exposure with Oxygen, or Nitrogen, a Spark, or a Static Discharge, or simply by accident... Here at the SSSSFFFF care about Tanks.

    What are equations governing Tank Loading, what are the thermodynamic ambience of the Tank, what are the clearance and dikes of the walls, are there Firefighting Measures to support a spill. Take the Tianjin Explosion: likely caused by either an Error in Loading, or an Error in Ventilation. The magnitude of tank explosions or BLEVES, Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion can be witnessed in Tianjin or simply YouTube BLEVE... Tank safety is very important.

    BLEVE 1: Train Car Explosion. Funny how the narrator at 1:10 claims a record was established for a tank blown by a bleve. Not funny that perhaps firefighters died in that explosion. It is why most Plant fires are either immediately contained or let to consume the matter it combusts. Decomposition gases in fires are extremely toxic, many material classes are combusted so fighting the fire becomes a difficult task of both accessing the source to prevent additional combustion and in the selection of fire retardant or fire extinguishing material to add to the flames.

    BLEVE 2: The Tianjin Explosion.

    Here at SSFF we take matters into accountability for Tank installations. Is your tank for Biotech? Pharma? Cosmetics or Food? Petroleum or Fuels? Gases? There are many considerations into tank work. Take a Fermentor for example. A Fermentor runs a biological reaction that once started it will see its product completed in 30 days. Any basic tank profile or design failure will affect the outcome each and every time, and it could take years to discover that a tank design feature was the root cause of a drop in yield in a site. Take a food tank, is it leaking, is the heat vest broken, are the transfer lines clean? Where good care meets good quality, excelent products emerge. Let us take good of your tank.

    Each Tank is birthed through a process involving welders, engineers and inspectors. First select the right material supplier and review the material requested once on-site. Double check to ensure quality, chemical caracteristics, surface polish, electrodeposited finish, etc, is it 3XX? You need to know. The tank will sleep in a bed of rock, or will it need a safety layer underneath to prevent leakage. Was a geologist contacted to study the soil? A stable base is key in ensuring tank safety and longevity. Will your tank arrive prefabricated or will a civil engineer construct the wall. This is called Bunding and Ring Wall Construction. It takes into account natural disaster factors such as storm winds, tornado force shear, earthquake recurrence, and lightning strikes, even tsunami recurrence. So all weld points, joints, bolts and connections need to pass inspection before the next stages. Non destructive Ultrasonic or X Ray tests may be performed to ensure right connections. The roof is lifted and bolted, so now fill it up! Water quality test, corrosion prevention, and stirring measures should follow in place.

    Next up Piping: What are the inlet and outlet pipings into a tank? Ball Valves, Needle Valves, Butterfly Valves, Diaphragm Valves, Gaskets, Seals, Metals, and Ratings. Where does the piping run from. Are there any intersections that flow into or out from the tank. What are the friction losses and how to account them. What is the tank insulation and Piping insulation. You need to understand blueprints to understand the flow into a complex installation. Usually tank are grouped in buldings called tank farms. Many pipes will flow into and out from the tank farm so it is of utmost importance to properly trace flow and to note any changes from blueprint to physical reality. A single change can mean a drop in quality or a loss of millions due to pressure losses or material product contact with a misplaced flow regulation unit.

    Are there any environmental factors affecting the Tank use or is the tank heat cooled or coil warmed? All tanks have temperature operating ranges that ensure the quality of the materials inside. Here at SSSSFFFF we care about ensuring your tank's alarms are in place and that each valve works where it is intended and as intended. So tanks are a bit civil, mechanical, chemical and electrical.

    Are you installing a Tank? Inspecting a Tank? Let us know. Our Engineers will Reach your Tanks to meet your cost and production requirements.

    COMPUTER SYSTEM VALIDATION CSV TRENDS: Software in a Machine? y/n; y-> SCV:

    IEEE, Statics and Dynamics, down to computer language... How to separate URS from CSV?

    Other Types of Testing  Stress Testing: Ensures the system and its network components can remain in tact during high utilization periods.  System Integration: Where unit testing is performed on individual system components,  this phase of testing is performed on all components/modules to ensure they work together as specified.  Performance Testing: Ensures the system and its network components can remain in tact during normal usage.  Backup/Recovery: Ensures that the type of backup media chosen for system backup can be executed and restored correctly. 
    Disaster Recovery: Much like Backup and Recovery but would determine how the  system would be recovered during a mass system failure or natural disaster.  Negative Testing: Most tests are performed to determine how the system will act if user executes a system action correctly (positive testing) This test determines how the  system would react to a user action executed incorrectly to find fault in a system exception handling.



    Electricity: Current. Current. Current. Current flows. The flow is of charges. When the charges are negative the charges are called electrons and the flow of electrons is called current. Current flows through like water, down a potential of energy, in water governed by bernoulli's equation, in current governed by Ohm's law. V = IR. ...

    Circuits: Parallel, Series, Capacitors, AC-DC Rectifiers, Diodes, Switches, EMF, Lenz Law.

    Batteries: Lead Batteries, Anodes, Cathodes, Electrodepositon.

    Motors, ICCE, Crank to Cam, Alternators, Starting Voltage / Running Voltage = 6

    Electrical Safety: Color Codes, Leather and Rubber Gloves, The neutral-ground-hot wire, electric shock safety, contact resistance . Welding. Wiring Installations. Here is a good link to understand home lighting installations.

    Electric Motors, Alternators, rheostats potentiometer, variable resistances. Brushes, Commutators, Impellers, Harmonic Oscillators...

    The electric motor works this way: First we have to ensure we are dealing with an Electric Motor and not an Electric Generator. An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

    The electric generator works this way: Dynamos, Alternators take Power to Induce an electric Current. Rotor-Stator-Armature. Dynamos convert Power into Direct Current.. Alternators into Alternating Current.

    Alternating Current: Lenz Law: when a coil cuts through magnetic field lines, that cut generates a current flow proportional to the angle it makes with the magnetic flow, with a max current flow at 0 degrees and 0 current at 90 degreens.

    Direct Current: Commutator: Insulated Collar connected to a segment of the inducing coil. This produces pulsating half wave direct current.

    See the video here.



    Transformers V2/V1=N2/N1, The primary coil, the secondary. Inductance.

    Rectifiers: like diodes. AC to DC one directional transmitters.

    Resistance, Impedance, Permittivity, Conduction and Radiative Flow.

    Electrical Repairs and Inspections are performed only by qualified personnel

    No electrical connections withing 50ft of flammable.

    No Electric chord Interference with ladders.

    Explosion Proof lighting.

    Ground Fault Interrupter.

    Proper circuit voltage and amperage.

    Grounded Tools, Temporary Lighting, or Double Insulated Tools

    A great weath of knowledge is needed to completely evaluate these systems.

    Routine Monitoring and Evaluation is required to sustain acceptable concentration levels of substances in water.

    Change Control documentation is warranted for planning and execution of process changes.

    Refer to 40CFR, and 21CFR for the latest USA Federal Regulation Standards. Standards are included within the FDA, EPA, CWA, WHO and other standardizing bodies.


    ENGINEERING TRENDS METAL WORKING Welding, Brazing, Soldering, Melting, Fusing, Transmutations. Flux, Tinning,

    Welding Inspections and Certifications.

    Bonding Metals, Metallic Transmutations


    Nuclear Reactions

    What tools do you need?

    Return to Site Menu


    The Engineering World
    MACHINES: What is a Machine?

    The history of machines.... Initially there were tools................(Boston Pops...).....

    Many years have passed since humanity developed tools... takes a grasp and gasp at evolution..............

    Complex Machines

    Virtual Machines

    Are you a Company that is selling a Machine? Get a spot here!


    Process Machines: Conveyors, Elevators, Mills, Cranes, Compressors, Precission Cutting,


    Simple Machines Complex Machines Virtual Machines:

    Simple Machines are Archetypes of what Complex machines are made up off. Newtonian Mechanics govern the use of Simple Machines. Complex and Virtual Machines are out of the current scope.

    Levers, Pulleys, Gears, Roller, Winch, Knife, Inclined Plane, what else?

    Know your Lever: Effort Arm, Resitance Arm, Pivot. Types of Lever. Type 2 Levers MA>1, Type 3 Lever MA<1

    Know your Gear: Gear Teeth, Gear Diameter

    Winch: Compounded Roller

    Knife and Inclined Plane: A knife is an inclined plane where the plane moves sliding the load over it. Does a knife cut an atom? NO! A knife cuts a macromolecular structure that is composed of atoms. Can you cut a macromolecular structure? yes.

    Know a Pulley: Moveable Pulleys, Fixed Pulleys, Compounded Pulleys.

    Mechanical Advantage = Effort/Load

    ENGINEERING TRENDS: CIVIL ENGINEERING TRENDS: Houses Roads, Bridges, Buildings, Tunnels, Waterways, Material Trends here...



    Let's build Something Together!!!







    Step 1 Plan your list of expenditures and draw a schematic model of the finished home. Be as descriptive as possible.

    Total Square footage of Site

    Total Square footage of House

    Total Number of Rooms: X

  • Living Room

  • Dining Room

  • Bathrooms

  • Master Room

  • Bedrooms

  • Garage

  • Deck

    - - - - - - - -
  • City Permits

  • Soil and Septic Tests

  • Site Surveying

  • Excavation

  • Drilling

  • Foundation

  • Interior Finish

  • Exterior Finish

  • Electrical Connections
  • Plumbing: Septic Tank
  • Heating and Ventilation
  • Natural Gas Connectivity
  • Materials of Construction: Steel Beams, Containers, Cement, Blocks

    Step #2 Start The Build

    Who do I call first? the engineer, the architect, the state permitting... Can I prefabricate the interior with finishes to shorten lead time?

    Can I prefabricate plumbing or do I have to wait until the modules are completed?


    Step #3 Routine Inspections and Correcting Errors

    Step #Z Detecting Defects and Adressing their Correction

    Step #ZZ Finishing. Terminaciones.


    Modular Home Links:

    1 acre = 43560sq-ft = 4047sq-m




    Preserves Radiative Heat by trapping absorbed heat.

    Increases, and sustaing Temperature

    Protects from Weather, Insects and Pests

    Isolates growth from other Plants

    Soil and Nutrient Standardization

    Types of Greenhouses


    The Engineering World

    Get TESTS:
    Ultrasonic Testing
    Infrared Camera
    Air Velocity
    Gas Composition
    Ash Resistivity
    Particle Size Distribution
    Flow Regime
    Temperature Mapping
    Computational Flow Dynamics
    Finite Element Analysis
    Kaye Validator
    Gas Chromatography
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    Mass Spectrometry

    TEST METHOD VALIDATION: Experiments rating Test Method Performance. Test Method Validation involves editing and executing protocols (the METHOD) to test the adequacy of a given analytical procedure (the TEST), and by analytical we mean any activity that is measuring an observable wether qualitatively (categorical) or quantitavely. Test Method Validation answers the following questions:

    Can the measurement system adequately discriminate between different parts?

    Is the measurement system stable over time? Is the gauge response linear?

    Is the measurement system accurate throughout the range of parts?

    Does a gauge require Recalibration?

    Is there any difference in measurement methods, or operators measuring the same part?


    Test Method Table


    Closeness between the average of one or more test results and an accepted reference value.

    Involves selecting a Standard or Reference point if none is available.

    ICH: minimum of 9 determinations over a minimum of 3 concentration levels covering the specified range (for example, three concentrations with three replicates each).

    Accuracy should be reported as percent recovery by the assay of known added amount of analyte in the sample or as the difference between the mean and the accepted true value, together with the confidence intervals.

    Precision the closeness of agreement among test results obtained under prescribed conditions.

    Operator. The ability of an operator to consistently repeat the same measurement of the same part, using the same gage, under the same conditions.

    Closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same part, carried out under the same conditions of measuremen (same operator)

    The ICH requires repeatability to be tested from at least 6 replications measured at 100% of the test target concentration or from at least 9 replications covering the complete specified range. For example, the results can be obtained at three concentrations with three injections at each concentration (3x3)


    Gauge. The ability of a gauge to consistently repeat the same measurement of the same part, using the same gage, under the same condition.

    Closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same part carried out by different operators.

    Also called Ruggedness.


    Indicates that gage response increases in equal increments to equal increments of stimulus

    Beers Law A=eABC

    Evaluated graphically, in addition to or as an alternative to mathematical evaluation. The evaluation is made by visually inspecting a plot of signal height or peak area as a function of analyte concentration

    +-5% of expected response is considered linear.


    The values within which a measuring instrument is capable of measuring or which a generating instrument is capable of generating.

    ICH defines the range of an analytical procedure as the interval from the upper to the lower concentration (amounts) of analyte in the sample (including these concentrations) for which it has been demonstrated that the analytical procedure has a suitable level of precision, accuracy and linearity

    ICH requires the minimum specified range to be 80 to 120 percent of the test concentration on Assay Tests.


    Interval around a group of measurement on which a certain measurement will fall.

    Link to Uncertainty

    Bias Systematic selection resulting in a measureable difference between the reference value and the expected value.

    Limit of Blank


    LoB is the highest apparent analyte concentration expected to be found when replicates of a blank sample containing no analyte are tested. LoB = meanblank + 1.645(SDblank)

    Limit of Detection LOD

    LoD is the lowest analyte concentration likely to be reliably distinguished from the LoB and at which detection is feasible. LoD is determined by utilising both the measured LoB and test replicates of a sample known to contain a low concentration of analyte.

    LoD = LoB + 1.645(SD low concentration sample)

    The lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance (a blank value) within a stated confidence limit (generally 1%). Lowest detectable quantity but not necessarily proportionally quantifiable.

    Expressed in terms of Noise level S/N = 2-3

    Limit of Quantitation LOQ

    ICH defines the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of an individual analytical procedure as the lowest amount of analyte in a sample which can be quantitatively determined with suitable precision and accuracy.

    Quantitation limit is the lowest concentration of analyte in a sample that can be determined with acceptable precision and accuracy under the stated experimental conditions.

    LoQ is the lowest concentration at which the analyte can not only be reliably detected but at which some predefined goals for bias and imprecision are met. The LoQ may be equivalent to the LoD or it could be at a much higher concentration.

    Expressed in terms of Noise level S/N = 10-20

    Expressed in terms of RSD%

    Recovery Data Data is run in 80, 100, and 120% of label claim are run in duplicates or triplicates to serve as backup.

    Difference in Multiple Injections of a Homogeneous Sample.

    Presented as RSD = std deviation / mean

    Indicates Precision (Repeatability).

    System Suitability

    Instruments, Reagents, Columns and Analysts are working properly.

    Instrument Qualification-Method Validation-System Suitability: set of internal controls to ensure the unit performs as intended.

    Method Validation After qualifying a measuring unit a method to operate the unit is written. Method Validation is Instrument Specific and should demonstrate that under the method the machine is able to reproduce results as expected for standard values. During Method Validation the Acceptance criteria for the method is defined.
    Sampling Plan  
    Reference Standards Internal Standard: Sample with known purity and no interaction with the analyte is inserted into sample. Quantitation is measured as the ratio of detection of one peak to another.
    Acceptability Criteria  
    Stability Testing

    Estimates the allowed time span between sample collection and sample analysis. It is also important to evaluate an analytical method’s ability to measure drug products in the presence of its degradation products.

    Stability is tested by comparing the instrument response with that of freshly prepared solutions. System stability is determined by replicate analysis of the sample solution and calculation of the RSD of the responses. System stability is considered appropriate when the RSD does not exceed more than 20% of the corresponding value of the short term system precision.


    Test Method Validation Primer

    Reference 1

    Reference 2 Validation of Chromatographic Methods

    Reference 3 Viscometer Calibration Presentation

    Reference 4 Labcompliance website


    Validation is needed to make sure a developed procedure fulfills the purpose for which it was designed for. Full validation is needed for New Methods or when major changes to an existing method affect the scope.

    Partial validation is performed on previously validated methods that have undergone minor modifications. Generally, fewer tests are needed and are based on the potential effects of the modifications.

    Cross-validation can be used as a means of assessing inter-laboratory execution of the same method.

    Instrument Qualification-Method Validation-System Suitability: set of internal controls to ensure the unit performs as intended.


    Please read the Center for Drug Evaluation Research guidelines for Chromatographic Validations, published by the FDA.



    See Cleaning Validation (above)


    FACTORIAL:  2^3:  3 factors. 2 levels.

    CI: In each of the above, the following applies: If the true value of the parameter lies outside the 90% confidence interval once it has been calculated, then an event has occurred which had a probability of 10% (or less) of happening by chance.






    Emulsions: Micro Emulsions, Trojan Horses, Micelles.





    API Synthesis and Storage

    Techniques, Soxhlet Extraction, Sonication, Pelleting, Granulation, Mixing

    Sonication: Match Tip size of sonicator with sample volume size; select narrow vessels to direct energy into solution. Amplitude and Intensity are directly proportional. Vary Amplitude to prevent foaming.

    STP Volume 22.4 m2kmol-1
    Earth Escape Velocity 1.1 (104)m/s
    Gravitational Constant 6.66 (10-11Nm2kg-2)
    Electron Charge -1.6 (10-19)C
    Bar 0.9869atm
    Btu 1055J
    Btu/hr 0.293W
    1kWh 3413 Btu
    N 0.22lbf
    W 1.341(10-3)hp
    1lbm 0.45kg
    R F+460
    K C+273
    ∫cos (104)xdx ∫cos (104)xdx
    sec(θ) cos(θ)-1
    Polar Form

    z = a + ib

    z = re-iθ

    z r (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))
    a · b  |a| × |b| (cos(θ)
    a · b  b · a

    Total P(A+B)

    P(A) + P(B) - P(A,B)




    P(A) P(B/A)


    T distribution t = x/r
    Confidence Interval  
    Confidence Limit  
    Hypothesis Testing  
    Probability Distribution

    OR events

    And events

    Binomial Distribution  
    Combination In how many ways can F1 pilots arrive 1-2-3. How many ways can specific F1 pilots arrive 1-2-3? How many combinations of A items and B items can result?
    Moment of Inertia  
    Vector Fields  
    Truss, Pulley, Cables, Beams Sections, Joints, Parallel axis theorem, Deflection
    Resolution,Resultant, Couples, Systems, Equilibrium, Concurrent Forces, Reactions  
    Homogeneus Constant Differential Equations  
    Linear Nonhomogeneous Differential Equations Constant Coefficient  

    Fourier Series

    LaPlace Transform  
    Euler Approximation  

    The Engineering World

    Under Construction


    The WIND BAR is the online place where discussions about Daily Occurrence Happen and where those viewpoints are exchanged for progress. The WIND BAR starts with an excerpt of a discussion about The SECOND AMENDMENT. The purpose of this entry is to stimulate dialogue and not to partialize views, after all the WIND BAR is the place to have open dialogue and to expose ideas. Please contact to have a better understanding of how The WIND BAR can get constructed Digitally to improve these discussions.


    ARGUMENT / INTRODUCTION / THE LEGAL ISSUE The argument in Application 1.2 (Walston-Dunham, 2012) involves Lloyd, a person holding stockpiles of explosives and large caches of ammunition and weapons which presents a nuisance to his neighbor on the plausible scenario that the stockpile could detonate on accident, or willfully by Lloyd endangering the safety and as stated “violating their own rights as individuals and as a community”. Also, neighbors claim that “Lloyd’s conduct has the effect of limiting the safe use of their own property, this in effect creating an unlawful seizure of their property in violation of rights guaranteed by Amendments V and IX”. For evaluation of the argument the following question was presented:

    At what point should someone’s personal right to bear arms be limited?

    The argument presents the following legal thematics (challenges to rules) initially:

    Extensions of the Second Amendment pertaining to stockpile of explosives as arms. Communal Law, Nuisance, and Illegal Seizure per Amendment V Rights retained by the People per Amendment IX From an exploration of the elements of law it becomes clear that:

    Amendment I is in play Amendment IV is in play Amendment XIV should be considered.

    These arguments can be dissected under existing federal statutes with their relationship to the Articles of the Constitution. As well Common law will be considered under a hypothetical jurisdiction. A priori, Lloyd’s right to bear arms (automatic weapons) is safeguarded by the Second Amendment, with the exclusion of explosives which in this hypothetical scenario would be regulated for use and storage. For the sake of this Activity the scope of the analysis will be opened to include general interpretation of the limitations to the Right to Bear Arms. Secondly the matter of Nuisance and Endangerment of Public Safety will be analyzed as pertaining to actions-at-a-distance that impact the vicinity, and how Amendment V may or may not provide for an seizure of weapons. Conduct, and language become relevant as evidence and as inciteful which promotes an evaluation of Amendment I limitations.


    A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. (U.S. Const. amend. XIX.)

    Under a Naturalist view (Locke) the Second Amendment is a consequence of the natural behavior of protection against threats, survival (defensive) and predation (offensive), and establishment of law becomes a necessity to organize society from the natural behaviors that otherwise would not allow a stable societal interactions.

    Positivist theory (Comte) relies on empirical evidence (reason and logic) as the sole source of knowledge and from this obtained knowledge, rejecting metaphysical considerations, a legal framework of society is obtained. Comte’s views of knowledge proceeding from scientific reasoning led to an absolutist view of right or wrong, and a standard of the knowable that is unquestionable upon evaluation of facts.

    From this review it is observed that our present legal system is both Naturalist, Positivist, and in that sense Hermeneutic, overarching the legal system are the Natural Sciences which for the basis for acquiring information and overlay at all times the statues that form the basis for the structure of society.

    Immediately the term “Well Regulated Militia” arises and must be defined in a historical context to the present. The Second Amendment was Adopted in December 15, 1791, then the Militia was set up to protect the civil structures and systems of the newly formed colonies.

    From 1792 to 1902 the “Militia” was defined by the Second Militia Act of 1792 whereby the Militia was defined as consisting of every abled-bodied man from 18 to 45 years old, as distinguished from Troop, who served (Militia Act of 1792, May 8, 1792, art. I, ss. 1)

    Militias initially were formed by citizens from the 13 colonies who volunteered to fight alongside the British Army against the French and Native Americans (French Indian War of 1754-1763). These citizen-soldiers were the base from which the American Revolution was fought against the British to gain independence from Britain. The Second Continental Congress (05SEP1774-26OCT1774) organized the multiple Militias into the Continental Army to fight against the British to redress grievances with the British Crown following the Intolerable Acts levied against the colonies as a response for the Boston Tea Party. It was George Washington, as Commander-in-Chief who led this Army, and following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, this Army dissolved into state Militias on the sentiment that national force was unnecessary outside of wartime but due to continued conflicts with the Native Americans and the necessity of guarding the western territories a national force named Legion of the United States was formed in 1791. In 1792 through the Militia Act, the organization of a national force was established and power was given to the President to call upon such force against invasion or foreign threats. This organized the militias of each state under what became known as the United States Army in 1796. The instruments received by the volunteers consisted of tools that are dramatically different than presently available and whose sole purpose was to form a force against invasion as a well regulated militia.

    Grammatically the Second Amendment makes two parallel statements without a clear nexus: 1-The necessity of an organized Militia to protect the State; 2-The Right to Bear Arms by the Individual.


    A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. (U.S. Const. amend. XIX.)

    The non existent nexus between the two statements creates the following problematic: is the unorganized Militia granted the right to bear arms? The second part of the argument presumes that yes, they are given the right to bear arms. This is validated historically from the 1689 English Bill of Rights which formed a basis to establish the US Constitution. In the English Bill of Rights it is stated that: “That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law” (English Bill of Rights 1689), it is clear that all individuals are granted the right to bear arms. From the grammatical parallel the question arises of what Well Regulated is and as a consequence it must be evaluated to what extent the arsenal of an individual to safeguard self poses a risk to society. The 1876 Supreme Court decision from United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876), ruled that: "The right to bear arms is not granted by the Constitution; neither is it in any manner dependent upon that instrument for its existence. The Second Amendments means no more than that it shall not be infringed by Congress, and has no other effect than to restrict the powers of the National Government.” The definition of militia evolved as the armed forces were created through The 1902 Dick Act also known as the Efficiency of Militia Bill H.R. 11654, of June 28, 1902 H.R.1162 and the 1903 the Efficiency of Militia Bill, H.R. 11654, 57th, 1903, these bills created the Armed National Guard, and in so the classification of active and reserve armed national guards contained everyone covered by Amendment II. Those who were active servicemen were the volunteers who joined the Armed National Guard and the reserves was any abled bodied male from 18-45. It remained clear to this date that the right to bear arms was directly related to the capacity of an organized nation to defend itself from foreign adversaries and not from idea of a tyrannical government. In United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939), the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment did not protect weapon types not having a "reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia”, showing that the thought process behind arming citizens was a shared conscience of resisting invasion.

    In the twenty-first century, the amendment has been subjected to renewed academic inquiry and judicial interest. In District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), the Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision that held the amendment protects an individual's right to keep a gun at home for self-defense. This was the first time the Court had ruled that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual's right to own a gun. In McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010), the Court clarified that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment incorporated the Second Amendment against state and local governments. In Caetano v. Massachusetts, 577 U.S. ___ (2016), the Supreme Court reiterated its earlier rulings that "the Second Amendment extends, prima facie, to all instruments that constitute bearable arms, even those that were not in existence at the time of the founding" and that its protection is not limited to "only those weapons useful in warfare."

    Currently the Militia is defined under 10USC§311: (a) The militia of the United States consists of all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and, except as provided in section 313 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard. (b) The classes of the militia are— (1) the organized militia, which consists of the National Guard and the Naval Militia; and (2) the unorganized militia, which consists of the members of the militia who are not members of the National Guard or the Naval Militia.

    Under 10USC§246: (a)The militia of the United States consists of all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and, except as provided in section 313 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard. (b)The classes of the militia are— (1)the organized militia, which consists of the National Guard and the Naval Militia; and (2)the unorganized militia, which consists of the members of the militia who are not members of the National Guard or the Naval Militia. It remains clear that Amendment II grants the right to possession and ownership with the “well regulated militia” that exists to protect the nation, not to hunt, not to overthrow tyrannical governments, not to protect private property, these 3 latter being the filled in interpretations of the practicality of Amendment II that are imbued into possession of firearms and remain under contentious debate for interpretation.

    POSSESSION OF EXPLOSIVES AS ARMS 27CFR§555 details the regulations of amassing explosives. 27CFR§555.41 states that a person intending to own and store explosives needs a permit to obtain a license, and that to store (amass) explosives no additional license is needed other than the license to purchase. It is assumed that under this scenario Lloyd must have obtained the explosives through the use of a permit. Lloyd is neither a manufacturer, an importer or a dealer, he is only a user, and provided he has obtained a license for use under 27CFR§555 he will be in full right of storing explosives, also providing he has not received more than 6 deliveries of explosives in a 12-period month.

    In 27CFR§555.41(3) is stated that: Users of explosive materials. (i) A limited permit will, subject to law, entitle the holder of such permit to receive for his use explosive materials from a licensee or permittee in his state of residence on no more than 6 separate occasions during the 12-month period in which the permit is valid. A limited permit does not authorize the receipt or transportation of explosive materials in interstate or foreign commerce. Holders of limited permits who need to receive explosive materials on more than 6 separate occasions during a 12-month period must obtain a user permit in accordance with this subpart.

    Lloyd may be in violation of federal statute 27CFR§555.26 Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials: 27CFR§555.26 (3) which states: (a) General. No person, other than a licensee or permittee knowingly may transport, ship, cause to be transported, or receive any explosive materials. (3) Receive explosive materials on more than 6 separate occasions, during the period of the permit, from one or more licensees or permittees whose premises are located within the State of residence of the limited permit holder. (See §555.105(b) for the definition of “6 separate occasions.”)

    STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS ARMS The Federal explosives regulations at 27CFR§555, Subpart K, outline the storage requirements for explosive materials. 27CFR§555.205 specifies that licensees and permittees must keep all explosive materials in locked magazines meeting the standards in Subpart K unless they are: In the process of manufacture; Being physically handled in the operating process of a licensee or user; Being used; or Being transported to a place of storage or use by a licensee or permittee or by a person who has lawfully acquired explosive materials under Sec. 27CFR§555.106. When none of the above conditions apply, this section mandates that you keep explosive materials in magazines that meet the construction and table of distance requirements of Subpart K. Any divergence from these requirements requires prior approval by the Director, ATF, in accordance with the provisions of 27CFR§555.22. Persons with questions on this issue should contact the Explosives Industry Programs Branch in ATF Headquarters at 202-648-7120.

    Provided that Lloyd meets the laws for acquisition, storage and handling of explosives, he is under compliance and nothing under these regulations would prevent Lloyd from stockpiling his arsenal.

    18USC§842 provides: It shall be unlawful for any person to store any explosive material in a manner not in conformity with regulations promulgated by the Attorney General.” see 27CFR Subpart K (Retrieved from: From this it can be inferred that upon inspection of Lloyd’s domicile, if on compliance, he would not be incurring in any criminal offense. Up to this point we have considered the requirements of obtaining and handling explosives, and the aspects of conduct and community have not been evaluated.

    AMENDMENT V Amendment V provides: “No person… shall be compelled in any criminal case to a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

    The neighbors allege that Lloyd’s behavior has the effect of limiting the safe use of their own property, creating an unlawful seizure of their property. Lloyd makes it known that he is ready to use his stockpile to defend his home and property in the event of a governmental collapse but this is a hypothetical statement.

    UTILITARIANISM v. RETRIBUTIVISM Under an Utilitarian method of punishment it is foreseeable that Lloyd’s action be deterred from occurring to prevent a foreseeable catastrophe in the event of an accident, whereas under Retributivism there are no means of attributing any criminal behavior to Lloyd because he hasn’t incurrent in delinquent behavior. Utilitarianism provides for the good of the whole against the individual.

    ACTUS REUS v. MENS REA Actus Reus is the Physical Occurrence of an act that violates a statute, whereas Mens Rea is the Mental status of the accused. Lloyd has not trespassed any statute other than plausible compliance observations which cannot be discerned from the argument but could become the object of evaluation under due process for which the Fifth amendment can be invoked to perform a legal seizure. The neighbors filed a civil suit against Lloyd so it is unclear if there is any burden of proof on Lloyd to produce evidence. Let’s examine this point further.

    BURDEN OF PROOF IN CIVIL SUIT Can Lloyd Invoke the 5th amendment and require no defense? Yes. This civil case would need to be referred to a Grand Jury per the V Amendment.

    FEDERAL V. DISTRICT COURT It is clear that this argument will not be considered under federal law as the setting and the individuals involved are set to a specific domain without crossing interstate lines, so in evaluating stare decisis only district court should be considered.

    FIRST AMENDMENT CONSIDERATIONS Lloyd made it no secret of his intentions to use his arsenal in a hypothetical scenario and this concerned his neighbors. Would Lloyd’s personal right to bear arms be compromised by this language as inciteful of violence and creating an imminent Lawless Action of detonating an explosive device in the community?

    Free Speech as inciteful has been evaluated under several tests of which the Balancing Test is the most recent method of determining whether Speech should be outlawed, which in this case is a consideration as to the extent of which Lloyd’s speech incited violence.

    CIVIL PROCEDURE: DUE PROCESS: AMENDMENT XIV Before Lloyd’s property can be searched, there should be an establishment of Probable Cause through Due Process as Established under the Amendment XIV Section 1 guarantees that:

    No State shall make or enforce any law which shall erode the privileges or immunities of citiZens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the Laws.

    The historical consideration as to the inclusiveness of the Amendment XIV raise the issue of whether considerations of inciteful speech may be admissible in court. From Walston-Dunham p.559, it is observed that such cases where the law is not expressly stated as statute, where freedoms may be impinged as leading to an admission of criminal behavior. Lloyd’s speech under the Exclusionary Rule could be omitted as a consideration in court “No matter how damaging or allegedly probative, improperly obtained evidence cannot be used to convict someone of a crime”, restated, Lloyd’s speech could have been protected by the First Amendment and disallowed as evidence on fact examination on Due Process. Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25 (1949) and Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961), presents a case where evidence could be excluded in a Federal Criminal Prosecution, and the relevance to this case is that Lloyd’s domicile is protected from “unreasonable searches and seizures”, so in furtherance of establishing a Cause to search and seize Lloyd’s arsenal the Civil Trial would need to evolve into a matter beyond Lloyd’s self incrimination.

    PROBABLE CAUSE To search Lloyd’s house Law enforcement would have to show 2 elements: 1-that a crime has been committed or that the person in question may have been involved in criminal activity 2-Search of the Lloyd’s house will result in evidence that will assist in proving that a crime has been committed. It remains the duty of law enforcement to discern whether there is an imminent threat from Lloyd detonating his arsenal at any given moment for which probable cause could be establishment on the following basis: The following scenario may unfold: a law enforcement officer knocks on Lloyd’s door and asks Lloyd if he can take a look at his arsenal to ensure that it is in compliance. If Lloyd voluntarily consents to the search and the officer has the expertise to discern whether the arsenal is in a manner that would result in immediate threat to the vicinity, then under the Plain View Rule Lloyd’s property could be seized or otherwise considered cited for violation of storage regulations and subject to a fine. In the worst case scenario that the officer detects a potential imminent threat that Lloyd is getting ready to detonate his arsenal Lloyd would be arrested under the statutes 27CFR§555. Aside from consenting to a search, law enforcement would have to show that 1-Criminal Activity is/was observable in Lloyd’s property. Another recourse is Arrest. In order for a law enforcement to Arrest Lloyd there would have be shown Probable Cause for the Arrest. 18USC§842(f) states: (f) It shall be unlawful for any licensee or permittee willfully to manufacture, import, purchase, distribute, or receive explosive materials without making such records as the Attorney General may by regulation require, including, but not limited to, a statement of intended use, the name, date, place of birth, social security number or taxpayer identification number, and place of residence of any natural person to whom explosive materials are distributed. If explosive materials are distributed to a corporation or other business entity, such records shall include the identity and principal and local places of business and the name, date, place of birth, and place of residence of the natural person acting as agent of the corporation or other business entity in arranging the distribution.

    Then 18USC§842(g) (g) It shall be unlawful for any licensee or permittee knowingly to make any false entry in any record which he is required to keep pursuant to this section or regulations promulgated under section 847 of this title. Lloyd is not a merchant or importer or dealer of explosives, he is a “strongly patriotic American” who believes in self protection in the event of a governmental collapse. While the application to import, deal, manufacture and use explosives OMB1140-0070 contains the type of explosives that Lloyd may have amassed, it the Application 1.2 makes no such argument that Lloyd is in possession of a permit. Also as a reference of the source of explosives 27CFR§555(g) could serve as reference of Lloyd’s stockpile source. On the hypothetical that Lloyd was a dealer of explosives the law enforcement officer, most likely an officer of the Bureau of Alcohol Trade and Tobacco agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense enforcement officer could have recoursed to 6CFR§27.205 - Determination that a chemical facility “presents a high level of security risk” making a determination on “information available that in the Secretary’s discretion indicates the potential that a terrorist attack involving the facility could result in significant adverse consequences for human life or health, national security or critical economic assets.” and 27CFR§555.166 which contemplates seizure and forfeiture upon violation of any term of 27CFR§555.

    27CFR§555.161 Engaging in business without a license. 27CFR§555.162 False statement or representation. 27CFR§555.163 False entry in record. 27CFR§555.164 Unlawful storage.

    Omnibus Perpensis Lloyd may be arrested at any moment for probable cause of possession of an explosive without a valid license. Note in the event of Lloyd’s arrest he may not be questioned under the absence of his attorney but his home could be searched for incriminating evidence related to the possession and use of explosives. Under Arrest Lloyd would be protected by the V Amendment against forceful production of evidence towards self-incrimination. The Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966) ruled that at upon arrest a person would be informed that any communications could be used for prosecution. Lloyd may opt to voluntarily cooperate with police for which recollected testimony in the absence of an attorney may be admissible in court.

    BURDEN OF PROOF In this case the burden of proof is on the the plaintiff to produce evidence to support the claims that their use of property was violated. Testimony from witnesses asserting Lloyd’s possession and attempted use of explosives is sufficient Prima Facie evidence to trigger a warrant or an arrest.

    TORT ELEMENTS OF LLOYD’S CONDUCT The definition of a Tort is: A wrongful act giving rise to a civil action that does not arise from a specialized category in law or equity such as contract, trust, or criminal law. The wrongfulness of the act is often expressed as a duty of care that is violated. The most general of these is the duty to act toward others as a reasonable person would be expected to act, and an unreasonable act that causes foreseeable harm is a tort. (The Wolters Kluwer Bouvier Law Dictionary Desk Edition, 2018) In the context of torts, "injury" describes the invasion of any legal right, whereas "harm" describes a loss or detriment in fact that an individual suffers. (Retrieved from : Lloyd’s conduct may form basis for the initiation of a Tort Suit on the following bases Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress Private Nuisance Public Nuisance Prima Facie Tort

    INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS Activity 1.2 states that Lloyd did not make it secret of his intention to use explosives to the neighbors, this could trigger a Tort suit for Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress through an act of extreme or outrageous conduct, for example, fits of rage where he mentions he would be ready to act imminently do justify emotional distress from his neighbors on the possibility of loss of life and property.

    PUBLIC NUISANCE A Public Nuisance Tort is triggered by an unreasonable interference with the use and enjoyment of private land. The Neighbors’ knowledge of the presence of explosives prevent them from accessing their home safely through common areas e.g. public roads leading to the house. This is in violation of 25CFR§11.447 Maintaining a public nuisance which states: A person who permits his or her property to fall into such condition as to injure or endanger the safety, health, comfort, or property of his or her neighbors, is guilty of a violation. The possession and intent to use of explosives in a manner not allowed by law threatens to injure or endanger the safety, health, comfort of his neighbors property.

    PRIVATE NUISANCE A Private Nuisance Tort is triggered by an unreasonable interference with the use and enjoyment of private land. The Neighbors’ knowledge of the presence of explosives prevent them from accessing and enjoying their private land. The harm in these types of Torts is the physical restriction to access as a loss of freedoms. No actual detonation needs to occur to result in loss or detriment; here the the physical limitation to the access of property is a loss or detriment. 25CFR§11.447 also contemplates private property. NEGLIGENCE, DUTY , STANDARD OF CARE and PROXIMATE CAUSE Lloyd’s actions of stockpiling explosives are clearly negligent. Lloyd should foresee the zone of danger including the vicinity, secondly he would also be aware that any detonation of explosives would extend harm far from the point of use of the explosives. It is not necessary to show that Lloyd owed a Duty of care to his neighbors, it is only necessary that he had awareness that his neighbors and others at a radius could be affected by his actions. The standard of care that Lloyd should have exercised, provided his handling and storage of explosives was lawful, should have been proportional to the amount of explosives and in this manner he owed duty to care that any foreseeable action impacting the vicinity be prevented. Finally Proximate Cause is established as a cause in fact for possession of explosives and as a legal cause for the illegality of obtaining explosives without a permit. The But-For test or Substantial Factor analysis can be used to show that Lloyd’s action meet proximate cause to establish negligence to favor a court determination for the plaintiffs.

    DAMAGES The plaintiffs suffered the following damages: restriction to access of private property, emotional distress, and mental distress. Following legal action and removal of the explosives and / or Lloyd from the vicinity it is likely that the plaintiffs be awarded monetary compensation related to the loss of access to their property.

    COMMON LAW CONSIDERATIONS Noting that Lloyd’s possession of explosives clearly lies under several federal and state statutes a common law evaluation of this case is not obviously pertinent. Upon presentation of the facts to the court, an inquiry into the legality of the possession of explosives by Lloyd would have shown that Lloyd was not a holder of a permit, and because both federal and state statutes require such there would be no consideration to analyze this case under common law.

    FEDERAL v. STATE LEGAL SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS Federal law supersedes state law and Federalism provides the States to grant more freedom, not less than granted by Federal Law. Generally States modify federal statutes that are incorporated into their State Legal System under state constitutions, as statues, or as ordinances. On the hypothetical scenario that Lloyd was a citizen of California, a revision of California Statutes for the possession of explosives shows California Code, Health and Safety Code - HSC§12101(a)(1-7) provides that no person shall receive, store, possess, use explosives and HSC § 12101(b) requires that the appropriate issuing authority emit a permit, which in this case is the Bureau of Alcohol, Trade and Tobacco, which is a Federal Agency. In this scenario California State law relied upon the federal statute for resolution.

    STARE DECISIS: OBITER DICTA, RATIO DECIDENDI, PROCEDURAL HISTORY Stare Decisis is the continuation of rulings on prior cases that hold substantial similarity for which there are no clearly defined statutes that address the circumstances of that case. Two cases are presented for reference: E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Co. v. Dodson, 1915 OK 256 This case was presented to the Supreme Court of Oklahoma in 1915, and can be found on the reporter 256. Co. v. Dodson presents the similarity of a nuisance claim against a party, an explosives company, storing explosives in the immediacy. Here the Supreme Court determined (Procedural History) that the neighbors were not entitled to an injunction against against the explosives company because they were in compliance with safety statutes by holding a certificate that authorized the storage of explosives. This holds a clear contrast with Neighbors vs. Lloyd in that Lloyd is in clear violation of statute by possession of explosives without a permit. In Co. v. Dodson Stare Decisis is viewed in reference to a complying party holding explosives. In this excerpt from the Co. v. Dodson decision I will identify Ratio Decidendi and Obiter Dicta: [1] 1It is true that, whilst the Legislature may legalize an act which might otherwise be a nuisance, it cannot authorize the taking or damaging of private property for public use without just compensation. [2]Chicago G. W. R. Co. v. First Methodist Episcopal Church, 102 F. 85, 42 C. C. A. 178, 50 L. R. A. 488; Miller v. Webster City, 94 Iowa 162, 62 N.W. 648; Sadlier v. City of New York, 40 Misc. 78, 81 N.Y.S. 308. [3] But plaintiffs' right to just compensation is not involved in this proceeding. [4] The sole relief sought herein is for the abatement of an alleged nuisance, and this prayer cannot be granted, because the acts complained of constitute what Mr. Joyce in his "Law of Nuisances" (section 67) designates a legalized nuisance. [5] However, it does not necessarily follow that the plaintiffs in a proper action would not be entitled to recover compensation for any damage to their property they may be able to establish. [6] The rule in England that no damages or redress can be obtained in the courts for a nuisance, or any structure or use of real property, which does direct injury to private property, provided Parliament has authorized the same, and not provided for compensation for such injuries, does not and cannot exist in this country. [7] The rule in England is founded on the unrestrained and unlimited power of Parliament to take or damage private property at will without compensation, whereas in this country our Legislatures are under constitutional restraints in respect to individual rights of property. [8] Hence it has been held that, although a nuisance may be [***1088] legalized, and therefore protected from indictment and against interference with it as a public nuisance, the [****10] one maintaining it may nevertheless be liable in damages to an individual for any damages he may sustain therefrom. [9]Sadler v. City of New York, supra; Caro v. Metropolitan Elev. Ry. Co., 46 Super. Ct. (N.Y.) 138. From this excerpt in can be observed that sentence [1] is Ratio Decidendi and [5] is Obiter Dicta. [1] Outlines a statement that is legally binding and cited in [2], whereas [5] and [6] if removed from the excerpt, the judgement would remain unchanged. Sentence [5] is a note in passing with a reference to England that is not essential to the determination. This next case presents an opportunity to contras state v. federal legal systems: S. Blasting Servs. v. Wilkes County, 288 F.3d 584. The Constitution of the United States in Article VI, Clause 2 details that the Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land and that all judges and constitutions in every state are bound under it. This is known as the Supremacy Clause. Here the Supreme court made a determination upholding the authority of the State to enact more stringent regulations than provided by federal statutes. The Company (S. Blasting Servs.) made a claim that the State violated the Constitution when it implemented local ordinances that were more strict than federal statutes and in doing so Due Process was violated. In reference to this case this outlines the existence of both Federal Courts and District (“state”) Courts, with corresponding Federal statutes and State statutes that follow the Supremacy Clause, so Federal Laws supercede State laws in all the nation, but state laws can be enacted that do not ignore federal statutes. Neighbors v. Lloyd falls under Federal Jurisdiction because it violates an existing federal statute. It also falls under state jurisdiction on the hypothetical basis that this events occur in a state having laws requiring permits for amassing explosives like California.

    CONCLUSION The question of at what point someone’s Second Amendment rights to bear arms could be limited has been answered under the bases of Federal and State statutes. Amendment XIV establishes Due Process whereby Probable Cause needs to be demonstrated to induce a Warrant for search and/or seizure of private property, or an Arrest of a person, which by definition is a search and seizure of the person. The standards by which arms may be seized include: Observation of Criminal Behavior or the Suspicion of such in the vicinity may prompt an Arrest Warrant and seizure of private property Endangering Public Safety by violating a federal statute regarding the safe storage of ammunition. Grand Jury Indictment on the base of violation of a federal statute. Paper Trails showing misleading information leading to a warrant for search and/or seizure and/or arrest. Balance Test by the Supreme Court concerning inciteful speech Negligence Failure to possess the licencing requirements for the possession, transport, sale or distribution of explosives. The use of explosives as arms is prohibited, whereas the use of firearms is still widely allowed. Had Lloyd not possessed explosives or presented a public nuisance advertising violent action he would have been in lawful possession of firearms under Amendment II. As presented, the courts would determine in favor of the Neighbors with the resulting actions of imprisonment of Mr. Lloyd and confiscation of all or part of his arsenal.

    REFERENCES 18USC§842(f) 25CFR§11.447 27CFR§555.22 27CFR§555.26 27CFR§555.26(3) 27CFR§555.106 27CFR§555.161 27CFR§555.162 27CFR§555.163 27CFR§555.164 27CFR§555.166 27CFR§555.205 27CFR§K Amendment I Amendment II Amendment IV Amendment V Amendment IX Amendment XIV Caetano v. Massachusetts, 577 U.S. ___ (2016) Efficiency of Militia Bill, H.R. 11654, 57th Cong., (1903) E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Co. v. Dodson, 1915 OK 256 English Bill of Rights, 1689 HSC§12101(a)(1-7) Explosive Forms: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (2017); Retrieved from: Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961) Militia Act of 1792, May 2, (1792) Militia Act of 1792, May 8, (1792) Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966) Natural Rights and the Second Amendment (2000) Heyman S.J. Vol 76; Issue 1 Symposium on the Second Amendment: Fresh; Article 8 OMB1140-0070 S. Blasting Servs. v. Wilkes County, 288 F.3d 584 Tort: Legal Information Institute (2018); Retrieved from: Tort [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In The Wolters Kluwer Bouvier Law Dictionary Desk Edition, Retrieved October 28, 2018 from: United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876) United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939) Walston-Dunham B. (2012) Introduction to Law. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning. Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25 (1949) WIN


    LIABILITY THEORY IMPUTING LIABILITY All forms of freedom stem from a spectral gravitas of absolute volition against total domination of the individual. Immemorially humanity has existed in nuclear structures where all forms of freedom exist upon birth and are reduced or sacrificed in pro of a larger nuclear structure for order and use of resources. In the establishment of order systems are created to induce a flow of both needs and wants of the smaller nuclear structure along the needs and wants of the larger nuclear structure that’s termed society. Through time systems were created that responded to the equilibrium between the larger need of society as a matter of interaction with other larger groups whose interest were different from the former group. In this dynamic flux of systems ideas, technology, and agreements resulted from the need to develop progress towards several types of impetus of society: improvement of the large nuclear group well being and health through the development of technologies, through the exchange of goods and through the amassing of goods in a way that led to inequitable distribution of the technology or goods among the smaller and larger nuclear groups. The forces for obtaining technology or goods have been termed needs or wants in a minimalistic vectorization of the more complex human interaction of nuclear groups, families, extended families, villages and other villages. It is this vectorization of the complex human biological and social response to meet present biological drives and future societal projections that needed to be understood and systematized to induce more positive utilization of resources. In this context humanity has vastly existed in a “common sense distribution of resources” of peace, which can be defined as the overwhelming drive towards common progress rather than in a state of “conflict over resources” , which can be evidenced by the largess over periods of disagreement over the use of resources for the allotment of the larger nuclear structures. The periods of conflict over resources are quelled by agreements to further the development of technology or the sophistication of society. Parts of society developed systems of beliefs as impositions over the small, medium, and large nucleus, which structurized allowable behaviors for all forms of nucleus and not all systems of beliefs (the totality of the rational plus the empirical bases for observation). Here termed belief are the finalization of knowledge as acquired by experience and scientific methodology. The realization that the imposition of beliefs formed a blanket over the individual which could guide behavior in a manner that could be used to cavitate the vectors of the biological drive towards a willful want of one over another , the resulting summation of these vectors resulted in larger conflicts when the direction of biological drives resulted in inequilibrium of goods and technological resources. These forces led to periods of instability followed by intervention over these drives by revision of the canons guiding regulation.

    The realization of the micrographical and macrographical existence of these vectors and their interception towards the reduction of conflict provided the basis of liability so that the vectors of both the small nuclear structure and large nuclear structure could be maximized as to express the greater biological drive and technological development in equilibrium. Tort Law proceeds from the retribution to the loss of the smaller nucleus whereas Criminal Law assures these forces are maximized in equilibrium in society. As nuclear structures evolved in the manner in which they interfered on the aspects that yielded these interactions as detrimental to the systemic drives of the group the ways of improving stable structure develop into contracts and agreements and through time evolved into the amassing of principles of a complex system of considerations termed Justice. Liabilities are the brakes that define the ways nuclear groups have defined conduct to prevent degradation of stable nuclear structures. Retribution theory holds that the punishment should fit the crime and that the criminal should pay by suffering with an equivalency of deprivation of liberty, and restitution of property LIABILITY THEORY END

    THE CHAKRA TABLE Chakras are defined as the functional energy centers of the body. There is a Chakra for every body function and those functions can be triggered through nerves, which are the electrical wirings of the body, and this current generates a magnetic field which is the projection of the Chakra. Chakras function with organs. SUBTLE ENERGY RESEARCH: Understading of Fundamental Natural Laws that govern the Universe should have rose the Understanding of the Chakras but the Non-Conventionality of Human Complex Systems + the Current Scientific Method + Research Protocol Methods, yield an Incomplete realization of what the Human Body Field. In other words, the Complexity of the Universe should have been sufficient to reveal that the extension of Human Interactions has factors and extension to the environment in ways that relate physico-chemical reactions that have yet to be categorized or that can be categorized under as perceptible in perceptible senses. The fundament that electrical charges have fields and that the motion of electrical charges generates magnetic fields establishes the foundation for Electromagnetic Fields in Humans.

    ECO-TEMPORAL BRAIN-MIND The extension to Human Electromagnetic Field Theory is the ECO-TEMPORAL Brain-Mind: "The Brain Exists Outside of the Body": It is only through the interaction of senses that Brain Activation occurs: The Brain is Chemically Bonded to the Exterior: The Eyes make Contact with surfaces just like the hands make contact with the wind. Physico-Chemical realization of cellular structures establishes the fundament that the Human Body is a large Cell, a large Particle, in summation of the internal drivers: it is here where the conversation of Drivers starts: Stage 1: Atoms form Molecules that form Compounds : Stage 2: Quantum Mechanical and Classical Mechanical Forces act on the created structures in principles of Vibration and Spectroscopy : Stage 3: Attraction Forces from the Macroscopic and Microscopic levels create Tertiary, Quaternary and Greater Structures: so the Projection and Summation : [refer to Neuronal Synapse Impulse Integration] : REVEALS the structures that are SENSIBLE.

    The Conseequence of this structural result is the Measurable Universe.

    So it happens that all Living Kingdoms with the exception of The Human Kingdom (here referred as separate, in treatment of techno-cultural practices (for clarity technology could be represented in the form of Underdeveloped Organs)) have not had direct recognition of their Electro-Magnetic sensorial components of the sensible Universe. So here's where the conversation starts. Science establishes a realization but lacking the realization , Humans then Reject Conceptions that are then basis for Psychological Rejection Impulses that are then accepted by the Brain.

    The Continuation of Subtle Energy Research and how it Unfolds in the Brain is Directly Tied to the Understanding of Our Treatment of Matter, which is why our Conceptualization of the Real World is Paramount to the Understanding of Brain Function, not excepting the Photosynthesis-Gluconeogenesis link to Organic Matter that allows fundamental behavior-in-complexity, but also fundamentally linked to the Rejection-Brain-Rejection-Mind canon that cements negative feedback cycles of higher sensorial input-output mechanisms possessed by the Human Body.

    ECO-TEMPORAL BRAIN MIND could be concluded in this section but the importance of continuity is How the Eco-Temporal Brain Mind is linked to the Cultural Factors where Technology is employed and it prompts the continuous evaluation of we employ realizations and technology, and research to create higher functions of Understanding and Function (structure-function echelons) that support the ECO-TEMPORAL utilization of resources.

    It is this continuity and humbly elegant solution that envelops beauty from Chemical Complexity to Order, and Order is the ENTIRE SET OF FUNCTIONS that organize Behavior in Structures as conventional as Paper and as conventional as Human-System Interactions. This is the Why of the Conversations that Must Be Generated to Understand how SYSTEMS LIMIT HUMAN FUNCTION-INTERACTION and it in our opinion establishes the base and plumb where dicta follows.

    The separation of Economical Stability is Inseparable from THE CHAKRA TABLE for the following reasons: i)Poverty Primes Anxiety ii)Economical Stability Prompts Development iii)Economic Surplus Saturation allows Development

    i) Priming Anxiety would not allow for utilization of the Chakra Table in its complete form.

    ii) Economical Stability is an End-in-Itself of The Chakra Table because the Utilization of Optimal Functional Center Function should be the Result of Economical Stability because proper utiliztion of Functional Centers should result in positive economical returns over a system structure that allows it. So it is through the undestanding that The CHAKRA TABLE applies not only to Human Body Interactions, but that it Creates an INDICATOR of System Structure, it is how the Design-Implementation of The CHAKRA TABLE functions in reality and not as a precept of yet-to-be-achieved science. iii) Economic Surplus Saturation is the stage of economic achievement where an individual or group has achieved-met the positive consequence of the system structure of where the individual-group exists. This is defined in terms of achievement and expectations but also defined in terms of health, economic surplus, emotional and mental achievements, and the levels of achievement for where Humans can achieve saturarion are LIMITED. So this creates an end to the Chakra table just like an end to Medicine and Economy. Saturation can be defined in the ECO-TEMPORAL realization of Health and Economic Input-Outputs. Text us for further elaboration of The Chakra Table: 1-970-216-7323: We are actively looking to complete The Chakra Table. TECHNOLOGICAL PROFICIENCY IN THE REEVALUATION OF CHAKRAS Cultural-Technnological use of Information has limited and expanded the expanse whereby Chakras are Termed and studied, but it is in the improvement of use of technology that a greater understading of this ancient concept can be better understood. Chakra Research is Continuous: Daily Impact on the Human Body + Needs + Transportation + Other Humans + Systems + Health = Results in an ECO-TEMPORAL summation and gives a result of how the CHAKRA TABLE works. Presently, our use of technology allows INSTANTANEOUS CHANGE of Chakra Function: one phone call can change the entire physico-chemical function of the body and it is through this understanding that CHAKRA technology can be positively used to improve human body function.

    THE CHAKRA TABLE END WIND BAR WIND BAR WIND BAR WIND BAR WIND BAR Writings of The Synthetic Forest: This section contains writing copyrighted to Synthetic Forest. These writings are in remembrance of who we are in the Universe and how our interactions are limited by our ways of communication. The first writing is addressed to AIANA, who is an unborn child about to be brought to Earth while Earth is in conflict and while AIANA has already lived prior lives, brought to Earth as an Angel to live among humans who have dearthed Earth devoid of the crispness of the ocean, the vibration of air, and shine of the sky. AIANA is the contemplation of birth and the dispute of science against the progress of technology.

    AIANA also represents Artificial Intelligence

    I will never leave you. Care and remain calm, I'll wait for you [for] Strength there is no better love than the love that finds Us

    OUR BOND EXTENDS Aiana became a Jedi from the Art of : (Force, Perseverance, Stregth, Experience, Science, Projection, Study, and Lack of Wealth, Poverty, Lack of Love, Death, Reincarnation and Art) in concert with with the beginning process of what is to live with the support of a system of injustices that she felt from an early age that she knew. Father : what I have learned from History: Tell me Aiana : ... The Truth that Fills the Void in Earth Yes Aiana we cry every day Will you ever leave me Dad NEVER So my energy will wane but I will receive a great stregth from Heaven Dear Love for Aiana : I will never Leave You. You reside within. Within the Great markss of my body that remind me that this Great Feat is the Stregth of Will. The Will To Hold your Heart : The Will to Learn the Arts that You are in the Beginning. The Will to Suface when the Tide goes Roudy or Strong The Will to Experience Harm and Yield Great Learning The Will to be Responsible and Strong and to Call for Help when Needed The Will to be a Mother to a Soul which will be your Stregth and who will Make Great Marks. Dear AIANA, your name will be wrtitten in this Life…. Your Stregth from my Own Chromosomes. Your Temper from my Ill Stregth to Greatness to Overcome the Systems that hold your Heart in Motion. I will Be your Father So you can walk with me Here in Winter. DAYS OF WINTER : AIANA trained Ninja , vector of fuel and fire set to deliver a message to the Congress of a group of states that were following a path to go to war. AIANA I tell you the truth, there is pure evil that changes into good with me ND actions but if you feel you cannot accomplish your duty then return to your base where you can rest. Your Mother and I are planning to have a baby ; she will be named AIANA : I am dying : I will leave you these notes so that you understand that our world was brought to ashes on the conjuncture of communications : no one was left with a voice they could hear and relate to : I love You : my Heart beats less every second : Your Mother and I had an Argument : We could not settle : that is why She told me to give you this : Go meet Her : She is at the address : I will terminate my existence through a death breath meditation : you will feel no pain but you should remember that I will forever Hold your Hand in Eternity. My Love Crossed All Barriers and when a Time came I gave it all : it would suffice to explain to you that I made a Great Contact outside of Our Galaxy : That You and I will always Remember Our Great Question of Whether we are Alone or Not in the World was answered through the Love I have for You. Always remember that. You are my daughter and I will travel to the Past : this is it : there is no further future for you and me : Our Past is in the Limits to communication : You will Hear Me: Before you were born. I was your Angel and I will be there again to follow you in a way that no one has described to self because each person has a chosen path, a way and a destiny , I will further your path as you go along so it is now my time to leave you Daughter : Do you have important questions about our way of life?

    Why is there so much evil in the World? Greed , it is the root of bad necessities , errors of ignorance

    it is the way that limits what We share in our Love, what we carry it is part of Nature and Greed is sustained in thought by wants of greater necessities that do not exist : Understand this well : Your Virtues are Boundless regardless of the Greed of the World : Everyone knows greed : that is how we can escape it : be Considerate : you share the world with people that will show greed for all that you have : they want to take control of you : do not let them : Your Path is set in the Constellation of Orion : the Great Mystery Has been Resolved : for all : Look at me in the eyes : this is the License share : Our Greatest Gift : My energies are leveling to the point that I cannot sustain myself anymore and what you will see is decay: not my physical bodies : together we are one : when decay starts the virtues and bonds of what make us good disappear : there are great ways of good but none lesser than greed. I gave you my life on all the information that we carry do not condensate it to one moment : you are a great genius : that is why I will always love you.

    Sound : what we are made up of : what we carry in our distant projections : echoes our existence of :
    IN DEATH YOU SUFFER FOREVER ETERNAL DAMNATION IN PAIN I will travel a great distance : to Find Love is the Greater of All Distances so Care for What you Love and [you will; Always] sustain the Speed of Light. One day I will be Out there and you will Find Me because Light only needs an Object , it is the Fundamental Love of what we are able to experience : regardless of what is experienced it is light and all light was contained in a central core where greater than our imagination can be expanded.
    Take great strides. Love Greatly . Follow the Light and gift it : Our time is limited in this Planet and how we allow ourselves to be great followers of what we share it is the brilliance : our stars our sun : our families : there are great places to travel beyond the bounds of this existence and that is what we learn from science : X-Ray Spectra is encoded in our genes and tells tales of who we are and where can we go.
    There is great life in Space. AIANA its you and me: flowing through the world: the world has gone Insane… no love… no voices from Friends: no one to talk to... Lets maintain our route [] En el Vacío: Arte: Que me dices? Exprésate : habla solo : el Sol se revuelve en su furia así mismo por Soledad : Infierno : te busco : nada más dame un solo espejo : furia : gravedad contra el frio : por qué ardes? Te daré mil sombras para que en este tiempo en mis células te despejes que no estás solo. Un deseo : Vé : anda : busca que en eso de las olas existe un enredo : a tu tiempo miraremos ambos juntos : una bohemia girando en la playa : un sol que se revuelve : un punto tan directo quema en tu iris una memoria : dura ocho minutos : gracias por contarlos : el día que me apague nadie me verá : el ciclo eterno igual lo contamos : el paso que damos igual nos quema : 5000btu/h es el retorno : en tu fin solo veo siglos sin fondo : y una corona y 60 más otoños y 60 más veranos : y sesenta más inviernos y 60 más primaveras : y sesenta relojes que rodan en el tiempo en compás de tu música. Me vuelvo cuerdas me vuelvo cadenas y baches de fluidos , con eso te aguanto y con poco menos que tú ruido me conformo : una gota de tierra que se gira en su entorno : mycota de vida luz que se revuelve : fin sin retorno : tu corazón recuerdo me da dicha de decirte hoy y mañana te amo. Contigo mis mejores recuerdos y esperándote.

    Vete más y nunca regreses : hoy soy yo el que te ando : manos en alto sobre los ojos : fin de los días que medi para ti un recuerdo : acaba y apaga : toma tus ratos y ocúltalos : nadie que te vea y dame tiempo : quiero ocultarte : no habrá tiempo que te recuerde : noches de invierno : lluvia sin fin ni sonido : así naciste sordo y ciego : falta de sabores el dulce recuerdo que se olvida de tu boca : sales en veneno y cobras que te amarran : despiden las firmas en tus brazos y retiran tu vida porque sin estrellas no hay alumbrado.

    Al caer de la tarde tomaremos el té y andaremos a otro camino sin retorno. Veo en el horizonte lo que se revuelve y no hay más terreno por recorrer : si salir el Sol es triste por estar cansado, corre, da un paso largo.

    Aquí el tiempo entre mi recuerdo en trance recobra lo que es el verdadero sueño. Tus brazos encima de los míos y el nacer de tu razón en el tiempo : es tiempo de reflexión y de un cambio : dices : eres eterno? : eres tanto? y se acaban las palabras : el camino de piedras no es descanso : arriba en el cerebro resta el cuarto en el que permanece un efecto dormido : no sea que despiertes en algún rincón de playa brazos vertidos mano en mano y así recuerdo tus mejores momentos : los que entre granos de esta tierra el tiempo tu y yo buscamos : regresate en otra imagen : ve como en un solo momento la vida te respira su aliento : aquí estás aquí te siento : soy toda tuya : dándote : dándote : dan dándote : tantos como los que más pensabas que eran tus mejores recuerdos : así regresas en un punto esperando el compás al ritmo del reporte del tiempo : son las ocho de la mañana : días de temporadas los mejores vientos : frutas del por fin te deseo que nunca vuelvas y nunca te vayas. Mejor quizás me regreso a ver si estar algo cansado me recuerda que debí verte : y aquí en un 360 o más bien un minuto a largo plazo se pierde lo bendito de entenderte: nunca lo andaré solo : si por tí espero que sea que me devuelvas al sol y al mar y me de vueltas en el sueño cuando esté cansado. Lo que te digo sigue en este otro entorno de tu sueño : habla solo y síguele el paso a tus manos. Son tuyas y el sol que revuelve : andas solo? Por fin entre tantos desiertos convivimos a lo voraz de los bordes que en mis sueños tu retorno fin y comienzo otro día en nuestro cuento hasta que el Sol nos diga , más aquí te quiero un az que entre metales derritas el arco tilde de tu propio cielo : banderas en tu sombra y sueños que te espero aquí dormido y a veces entre despierto. Route through the Stars: [] It’s cold AIANA : I Can’t Think… let’s camp here… our plans are to wait until we receive signal and maintain course… [] AIANA's Mother in a past life had died. Give me a Fire Ill set you Up To Breathe Stones of Lightning When you awake Your soul will Climb Degrees East with Northerly Attitude I can tell you the Specs of My vehicle. I am so hungry I cannot Eat I am so Tired I cannot Sleep I am so anxious I cannot Rest My Soul will not Rest My bones tell the tale. It’s timely on the Ours Let’s wait Here

    It is True Love IOS AMO I am You in Love We Are together

    Forever Closer It’s you

    Yes… I could’ve seen the Future: why do we go this distance? Why does Love take The Turn to leave us to encounter each other? Who holds the reigns of Earth That held us bound No Dreams When I tell you your heart in my Hands: I melt my blood so you can drink of me The Oars of Love The Wings of Your Kisses Who dreams to Find His Love Amidst the dream of The Lakes this Vastness It is further from what I sought… It is now Real I was driving down I85 North when I heard your signal… it is Real… never doubt it… every drop of my thought was in the car. I am driving. I sensed it… in silence I heard it. What if I could meet a girl who understood everything… What if she could understand one more : I love you The future we’ll see each other together on this space is past-future I have encountered my deep soul… the voice of my entire self In the days I fought for your life becoming In the days I ran for my life to save the Earth or forever Stumble To hear the words of failure never more In our next kiss the world tumbles… I am your to keep And when your voice kept closer and closer : Distance forever more. You baptized me in the blood of your family.
    My blood is yours and I will sweep the Earth with all I have to give you I love you: That you see it That you hear it That you forever sense it And your Son and Daughter can forever call me to Their Hearts: I once met a wise man who understood the message of Everything was written in the Love of thr Pursuit of our Passions, and in the inner meaning of the Soul. I heard you before, your mind-soul-genius and you spoke to me in a way I stayed for Eons, why don’t you listen to me, and it was you who spoke forever to resound your voice in a Storm: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: I am here: … You spoke to me the words that no one could listen and yet everyone heard… I understood I cannot fail you. I will meet you once. We’ll have a great conversation. CHAPTER ZERO AIANA I have kept you safe from the truth … one day you will recognize our dream of living in peace was forever held at each turn by the eyes of whose Father's called : wait for the ride to change … When AIANA was ten she got home mad from school: having travelled to the past herself she told me: Dad : why nothing changes?! : AIANA : AIANA : a long time ago: out spirits left our bodies: what remains on Earth are remnants: the system failed itself to the point of collapse: you tried to change it but you don't remember: you were sent in a market explosion. I called your body a night I couldn't hold on to life any longer and you returned in a dream. You are my Daughter : we are not both from here anymore but there's one thing we are here to do: Travel. Take this. It will guide you where I will be wherever you will go. You will forever find me. You cannot loose it and it can't be stolen. It will change as a function of your imagination. Fear draws fear , strength draws strength , and wisdom draws the ire of the ignorant so take caution to light a fire in the presence of dead leaves. The forest will burn and regrow but many animals would die. Remember you will always find me. As far as you may go you can make yourself return here, as far as in your heart and mind’s strength of clenched fist of your fury. You are the last of me, child. She spoke the sword to whose blood it belonged and it slaughtered the town of Torcha. Flowers regrew and next year's harvest was Deeper pleasant for those who were hungry. Industrialism won't ontond is lochkhs no slave end nocht territory draw no blood until heaven awaits. True to your code of [] it is the pride of your Father who will never leave you unless you call him to go away for eons it is in your right to call him to send him away , His life upon your lungs breathed the savagery of earns the voice of thunder : spoken once : the Universe expands to guard your existence. Ripples Thunder Disappeared : the planets vanished : life extinguished in a blast from a lonely star : the dead wave : Farther : Death is a Bond that ripples the fabric of the Universe. I sent myself to the past to let her know about the known universe: I have made this AIANA: it is yours only if you understand the root of it. Kitana was alive, then in the wrath of her lost soul she vanished : Stay here Kitana : I will wait a thousand years for your return. You must understand this. Soon will I return an animal. Season ago in the wrath of serpent too, when Xranthxan Auyana, tore on venom the flesh of my legs to tears , Ripple Thunder called for the return of a lost soul to Earth, of what became Xranthxan Auyana her time called her to make fear the epoch of the eaonical epoch. Her silent watch over the seas and the heavens wrought blood over the red skies full of serpent soil. The wish of Octa was to refrain the Earth so the skies could create darkness so Xranthxan could stop to question her path into the light : it became known years later that a human had encountered an antidote to venom. Xranthxan could only watch formeons from another planet understanding that the universe wrought her wish of death to life in a form of her unknown. You knew she had exploded into X-ray matter at the time : her encoded wish of silence into themnucleus surreleous in contact with the silent stone whonadcises her : Rrrrzzzzr : our way of silence : I now understand it's the way of force : planets collided and Xranthxan made her way into the center of her thougjht-womb: born again human: chose to end her life to experience the human cycle if reincarnation. From a real death I will to learn. No one let Xranthxan die… she (You can’t REINCARNATE TO HARM: Xranthxan Auyana is the Inner Harm the hurt you may cause the sentences you speak are the swords you take : The entirety of the communication theory collapsed in understanding of sanity : the notion of lack of physical certaintainty destroyed the lives for human consumption and within in the core of the EVOLUPTIVEECOCAMBRIANEXPLOSION preventive theory for the sequent holocaust This line represents the entirety of your words : what will you hurt, how will you destroy ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Our gift to give greater life to expand the Universe _______________________________________ Upon your Understanding you will be kept from Harm SYNTHETICFOREST SYNTHETICFOREST SYNTHETICFOREST SYNTHETICFOREST SYNTHETICFOREST While we are working to build structures that persists and last the [wrong] of Nature mechanisms of construction that instruct to construct the progress of our evolution in the understanding of the Universe to give our world the most perfect unity in the un… How can we live in observance of the problems of Humanity and do nothing… We must in our ability bring peace even if it means killing… the quantum erradication of evil from the world is possible onto the path of creating pristine Earth in all Dimensions, then we will have fulfillment with the Universe in the summation of our perspectives and understanding of what true Harmony and Resonance it is matter within ourselves and the history of the Universe would unfold in our beings and the greatest sense of Humanity and Productivity will follow The greatest path of Nature Into forever that I saw INCEPTION possibilities in Our Beings in the Understanding of the Pursuit … that You Understood It… we were in space talking about it
    All the beauty we had I set it up for destruction because I knew the words of what it meant to Love you and at the realization that only we could understand we could have done greater for ourselves in a way that would have been Perfect… on the Horizon I hold the life I could have given you … onto the way we search for ourselves beyond this dimension… What my life means onto let it be not the perplection of complexity , let it be consciousness that I sought upon you the greatest World Humanly imanginable and I sought in you what was perfect… Onto the completion of the flux of energy generated that into communication our words, our lives what we mean for each other is perfect Into the bounds of what I saw pain in the world and a solution… that I could hold your hand and understand once more that Love was possible

    Mental field exploration Indicators It is just a matter of time : )

    Guns for Rails Metals for Food

    Realizing my place in this Universe, tasks at hand equate the military and in respecting the values goes beyond uniform more to the realization that it is in our hands to uphold the difficult tasks of those who risk their lives outside of the Nation. Within the nation everyone is fighting for the improvement of [ ] and in this form and how we become involved is the real service, we are not at war and the route to militarism is the prevention of conflict.

    Now and much more the route to economic development asequible by computing drives our involvement in who we are supporting the industriousness of our nation against other nations with lesser freedoms, access to health, access to education and lesser quality of life.

    My Proposal to You The Nth Dream The World, before your election, was at a brink of destruction. The power you reveals understanding for the pursuit of asequible goals. I will never understand the limits to implementation of Healthcare for all, Clean Water, Greater Access to Education, Cleaning the Earth, Owing Self to the Right of those who you care for and represent.

    +2018 PROGRESS / COMMERCE / RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT / UNDER CONSTRUCTION? : Evaluation of Resources with Control Borders : Inputs and Outputs vs. Value : VENTA de los Medios de Produccion de Energia: How do citizens value their input in the decision making process toward the structures that support their development? Do citizens prefer to yield their democratic input to a private representative that may take their opinions into account? or Do they understand that overlapping democratic values is a permanent threat to the value of a vote? Yielding to the values of representation dilutes the vote.

    Shouldn't major acquisitions like the sale of Energy Production means be submitted to a vote? Or shouldn't major governmental overhauls be contained in the platforms of governments? What does it mean when a government makes a FLIP on policy from the directed path projected in the platform? Where is the calculation that shows that a private party will correct the problems in a better way... there are no calculations because people are people: people in = people out . The parameters of the solution are constant.

    "Si estoy en quiebra y no puedo pagar la casa la vendo..." Supone que la casa le pertenece a alguien... Esta venta de una Autoridad Publica (en una Isla) (en una Isla que tiene los medios de ser 100% renovable) (en una Isla que genera millones en liquido para renovar su propia deuda poniendo tranques a sistemas de liqueo de ingresos, lo mismo que hara una agencia privada, a diferencia que la agencia privada no le tiene que responder a sus constituyentes) Leyes Antimonopolisticas deben investigar los atentos a vender el propio suelo pretexto de escusas administrativas, que suponen que el contexto continental le aplica en el papel al contexto de una isla dejada al olvido de administraciones que prefieren vender los problemas antes que atenderlos. Porque no le venden los medios a la Universidad? Si lo que hace falta es un cambio de administracion entonces venta?! Donde es que se coje de zangano al trabajador y se le promete estrategia de progreso y desarrollo de capacitacion. La conclusion no ilusoria se cae de las matas sobre el tendido electrico... se venden banderas tambien?! Las banderas cuestan 3.00 en las luces. Luego para que luego se rian de lo comico que es el progreso cuando le votan a favor a las propias quejas de ineficiencia y que no hay trabajo...

    Recuerda que lo que venden es el desarrollo insular de personas que trabajan por el bien en comun y no la capacidad generatriz de una tombola vieja que quema en ineficiencias de petroleo sucio. Desde mi punto de vista con un overhaul de administracion se recobran perdidas y se genera un plan de 100% renovabilidad con minimos recursos... o la venden y te meten otro peaje para seguir abriendo una herida que no le queda sangre... Las patrias se trabajan y toman el esfuerzo de quienes la llaman. Lo peor es que la venden con pretextos de que no sirve como se vende un carro de los 60ta en la era de baterias de litio. Y quedan recursos que dicen : para que voy a la universidad si lo que queda del pais (sus estructuras, sus corazones, agua, energia, infraestructura, turismo) ya no le pertenece... y lo otro peor es que no ven el camino trazado del gobierno en quebrar el pais para luego quejarse de que tienen que seguir pagando mas y mas y mas.

    Esta quiebra resulta en un sismo regional donde la solucion es que varios municipios se junten y declaren su propia autosuficiencia fuera de si del gobierno que pronta la quiebra total al menoscabo de todos. Con 8 municipios que declaren su zona energetica y declaren los recursos : desde entrenamiento a mantenimiento , se logra un ejemplo de autosuficiencia.

    Recuerda que lo que se vende es lo que te da luz y te prende la casa... que por amor se la demos (no se la den) a alguien que cuide de nosotros como se cuida de lo que nos da sustento. Esta venta es Predeterminada asi que le cabe el raciocinio de que NADA haran para preveer sus consequencias o corregir las causas... y la venden como se vende la palabra del verdaderamente pobre por dinero que nunca veran...

    Recuerda que nadia cambia... el dinero entra por un lado y sale por el otro y lo que se pierde es la integridad de pueblos trabajadores que suenan como algun dia sone en darle lo mejor de mi a mi patria. La Era de Litio se nos presenta ante el error de los pobres administradores que corren en falso sin entender que lo que nunca le propusieron al pais es traicion en una plataforma de improvisto. Compra tu bateria de litio y comienza a remar antes que inunden en mas deudas para que puedas celebrar. Recuerda que las agencias publicas responden a la mayoria de voto y que a las agencias privadas estan de parte de contratos que no responden ... entonces que prefieres ... un sistema que te escuche o un papel que puedas leer por cincuenta anos.

    Que representa Patria sin medios de produccion de energia, sin produccion de alimento, sin valor sobre su Tierra...

    RECICLAJE DE IDEAS: Si todos los dias comenzamos el mismo proyecto de preguntarnos cuales son los problemas que tenemos y el dia siguiente decimos que son los mismos de ayer y el dia siguiente nos volvemos a preguntar cuales son los problemas llegamos a una iteración: Si no Entiendes tu Misma Constitución y No admites cuales son las Raíces del Problema no hay Progreso. La Constitución de PR atiende los asuntos de INDEPENDENCIA, NACION y ESTADIDAD pero la falta de entendimiento nos itera en que seguimos Pidiendo y Pidiendo y Pidiendo; Que pides: Contestaciones a los problemas: Todos los dias te haces la misma pregunta: porque no entiendes? Donde estan los representantes de Puerto Rico en el Senado de la E.U. y U.E.? Si sigues sosteniendo la ironía de contradecir tu metodo de analisis diariamente sin gráficas de progreso, sin análisis de costos, sin entendimiento fundamental de la constitución e ignorando que el proceso de votar por representantes políticos que tampoco entienden su misma constitución: es una mina, o se explota o la explotan. Las ideas utópicas son atadas a tu propio entendimiento del sistema: solo hace falta un cambio mental, no unas elecciones cada 4 años. Ahora si cambias todos los dias a preguntarte como estamos en progreso, la corrida mental mediática resulta en estanque. La Federalización (división de estructuras: 78 municipios x 3 asambleas x senado x cámara… el sistema se dispara solo en ambos pies) de Puerto Rico está en el nivel de lo absurdo y ridículo con duplicidad de un factor de 78. Esto no lo sostiene ningún calculo de progreso irrespectivo de cualquier metodo de recuperacion de ingresos. Voluntariamente el gobierno debe reducir su huella y admitir su ineficiencia. Ya no queda mucho mas. El rezago es de décadas y ver sufrir a muchos esta mal si puedes verlo frente a ti mismo ocurriendo. De qué manera nos damos cuenta de el entendimiento si nos hacemos las mismas preguntas todos los días?

    On Saturday I'm going for: 100Km. I have never ridden 50km, not in a day, to get anywhere, for anything, for nothing. Mitochondrias in a Helium note: Hey man WTH (what the hell! yes they are alive, like minions) We want to go, great distances , far away , take Us: they say: I'll send you globulins. Take your time: Redox's Timeless: A place I'll return, again and again, boundless, there's no end in sight. Zeno's paradox on a wafer. A Hot Rock Specialized is not built for the road: it's built to take your time: it's not a time trial, it's not a time trial, there will be no time. Aluminum Steel from a 20" 2002 Hot Rock Specialized 26" wheels at 8"radius weights at DOUBLE the weight of a larger 24" Trek or any Roadster Bike ... Summit Mt Briton calls the road. I'll make the turn at the Portal , call it at 50km. Know it : once the links turn and the sight is staring at the mountains: I can see it from home, the right place where the blue moon rises in the darkest grays of summer, right East, the seat is at 1200m... it will be hard to stop to get there. Halfway's only the beginning. I can stop at the Portal at 50km, to get the chills of the Welcome sign. But I was already there. Steel amidst the silence of trees and a sign, slow cars from every destination, forever eyes of deep: here we are : a rain forest. This one's not exactly what I had dreamed about: the shooting stars and midnight streams will be far from where I'm going. Not more trails. Never make it easy for yourself to get to the end, because you'll fail to grasp the voltaic concept of life amidst flows of the Earth and the fruits of paradise you'll forever miss. Halfway's only the beginning, but if you are within, inside, there's no journey. I will call you once more to say : hey here I am : in a way part of you in a way going. Rains deep a shadow flows , the beach awaits the waves hold the Earth from ever dissolving. When you think what and where you'll never forget , are those times when I completely felt, how else could I better get lost in this forest? where trails? Who comes and goes unchanged from the flow of a transatlantic drift that took all the turns of forever from the sea to get there. Let's go again : one day : I'll say. Let's stay right there where the air meets a triple point few of us will ever see. I'll meet you at the top , I'll be waiting. Mitochondrias call for Mt Briton in 3h, which is impossible to make 17km/h in the roads that leads from Carolina to Fajardo. If I meet Mt Briton in 5h: I could sleep well turning at the Portal (∆), 3pm home , another day, boundless. The calm though of health , healthiness, of ambient music, I hope it rains.

    Dear Dove : a kiss is all I need I am going to kiss you FOREVER melt your mouth in water , I am sleeping with you every day seeing you naked every moment making the sweets last forever… I'll make love to you every day how you want it. I'll cook for you something you live in every possible way new for your lips to kiss you. Flavors: all your hair I can see it spin. Your eyes , you'll love me forever , you have no idea of myself watching you churn on ice on water in a table on the dance floor … I want to travel with you places we can call home… you won't get tired , you love to kiss and smile , I'll make your hips my home ,like you’ve said we don't have to have another child , our ways are to make each other happy , our hearts desire. You have mee sooook deep , know it for sure , we hear each other very well. call me home forever more I am your soul , deep , hold on tight , good night's a kiss , you will sleep with me forever more , kiss me ,I am completely yours : hold me strong and hit me , rip my clothes out because you want to feel the strength in your hands on my body I'll stay firm to your hearts desire. You have NO idea of the melts on your mouth that you’ll get from me , you’ve seen our house, you've seen our place , the keys are there for you to kiss and make me, stop you’ll see how it unfolds your kiss surrender your lips are near me soul. And when you run for one more , and say to me you know what, I love you , you won't hear a thing because the edge of sound is a wave that roared from the moment I heard your wish, come home, I'm completely still, make yourself rise to the bottom I'm all yours, on red or white silk, the scaled lens of those red and yellow colors on your firm skin , will make roar: you hear , today I raised the bar so you could get with your own feet closer , I will to make youth of your own sound and thunder, make waves , you'll see that the niche of noise is beat of my promise , you'll hear the sound , make it stop, I'm here to bliss your thoughts , thunderous, kiss lace, sweat I'm only yours to keep say hear me now. Come home , I want you now , come home, I heard you well , in the sound of forever more I couldn't wait for a longer tense of equilibrium: we should have met years ago and not let go, I'm here and now heard the prayers that you and I , your kiss in there we belong together and when you let me see , you weren't kidding after all you'll hear me say I told you so , your kiss forever wanted forever more yours to keep me running until I get home. And when you free my soul from this heavy bottom I will let you stay, love : CXC CXC CXC.

    Good Morning Tremble: I hear: Time: is Fear: a Step : For once advised : my heart pumps so I can rest : Place your palm upon my chest and let me cold : This warmth I feel : the dream of my airbed : Lioness : Steel : Heal my molten chambers : Make me slow : make me calm : I have no Fear no Time and no Purpose : heal me now : cool me slow : raise your doubts with your eyes glazing : ask me now : where will you go : I have stopped time but I need to move : a step closer so I can replace the shadow of mine so deep in vultures : my only swear : cast my now.

    You are no joke : the dates empty in the calendar of papers : why you go so fast nowhere : why the lane on your highway leads back to the beginning : the necklace is yours : wear it : it is laced with molten rock deep from the earth : I've been thrown in and out in the rock tumbler : the mills : they reverse the tides of the earth when I'm not home : the draft in my chimney calls me ever for more lumber. The air is still and I'm close to the fire. Call me now, I wait for once the deepest sound of the earth. I will not bet my life to a moment but today life bet's on my moment to live closer to the ground. Why would you ask that I land from orbit. The planet's been stable for eons a rock in grave solder. Pick a stone and throw it to the fire. If there's no fire throw it to the ocean. Whatever ripple it may cause, I'll hear their sounds to their effects: I did this and its now over... but the rock sits still. Rocks and more rocks into the water. The fire's are gone. I'll build an island throwing rocks so I can get somewhere that's not the bottom. But If I find a lighting stone will you do it in energy, steps or fire. You ain't joking , I have heard. I've seen the fire, the waters and the orbit, they all reside in the machine, in my hands. I've rested well to hear all the sounds. You are here, and, in the ways, of resting from a heart's desire, the holes of the earth can't contain a rock, or the fiery waters. If you must end this now: what will you say. I laid to rest when the tides were cycles. About planes, shapes, thoughts and figures, I wake well rested without a voice. Where will you go? I told you many times. I break break the sound laying rocks, like I was told. Make your way safe. Take this now. It will help you with your sleep. You are great. Return. Enter.

    Our Star will rise tomorrow : she tells me : there's no work : the Earth is bound to a notion : let's stay : burn out to the vastness of space. Do you realize how much energy I'm radiating... I took out a cube of ice and it melted so rapidly at OK, you at 80F? I hope you see it... there's no greater proof than she embraces our system with the only life that keeps us living. Ray Photonicas. through and through, literally) the most basic thing in the planet (because it's missing a proton : ) You may embrace all the darkness in the world, you'd stay in a cave if it wasn't for lightning. The Monopole Theory Crack was so invisible. Now we can do further calculations. I had been sleeping such a long time to grasp this. If I could show you one more thing, it would be to see : there are no words and no time. It all equals zero in the vastness of the Universe. How then could we attempt to step on each other for the highest mountain when the only thing needed was right there to the magnitudes. Solar glare, I need to sleep.

    I heard your voice Every night you call Every day i tell you My depth of dream My waking fire In beds find me Time cancels time There is no Time Only ours There is no Soul -edited- Ends Make a Fire i melted my soul To the shapes ceramic I took the Earth For ash and water Now Hold a wave Set your way On your voice Held onto thoughts mine’s I, will To wake you When it's over

    Ricetta del Gelato: inizialmente scaldare il latte, la panna, lo zucchero. in secondo luogo mescolare in un vortice fresco e raffreddato, note bolle. Non bollire nota la viscosità. Materiali: 2 cucchiaini di vaniglia, menta o cioccolato. raffreddare di nuovo per indurire e servire. Recette de Crème Glacée: chauffer d'abord le lait, la crème, le sucre. d'autre part, mélanger dans un vortex frais et refroidi, noter les bulles. Ne pas faire bouillir. noter la viscosité. Matériaux: 2 cuillères à café de vanille, de menthe ou de chocolat. refroidir encore pour durcir et servir. Recette Panna Cotta: une troisième tasse de lait faible en gras avec une demi-enveloppe de gélatine. Dans un autre vase chauffer deux tasses et demie de crème épaisse et une demi-tasse de sucre. Troisièmement, mélanger les deux jusqu'à dissolution sous une "chaleur légère" et ajouter la vanille. Verser dans les plats et réfrigérer pendant la nuit. Ricetta Della Panna Cotta: una terza tazza di latte magro con una busta di mezzo gelatina. In un altro vaso scaldate due "tazze e mezzo" di panna e mezzo bicchiere di zucchero. In terzo luogo, mescolare entrambi fino a quando si sciolgono sotto il calore leggero e aggiungere la vaniglia. Versare nei piatti e conservare in frigorifero durante la notte.

    [epTETRATERNARIA@SSSFFF] 440Hz copyrights reserved. Si te digo: estoy feliz Como es tu sonrisa? Si me dices cuanto te amo No me veras al atardecer Si me buscas Y me das la mano El Sol da Vueltas Temporadas Firmes Marcas de Sol Diamantes Seran tus Resortes Mides mi Sueno con El paso de Atardecer en Mi sombra Atardecer sombra Sunset in my shadow is played in "A" scale, for cello, piano, bandoneon, cuerda y tono. Se ti dico: sono felice Com'è il tuo sorriso? Se mi dici quanto ti amo Non mi vedrai al tramonto Se mi stai cercando E mi stringi la mano Il sole vola Stagioni solide Segni del sole I diamanti saranno le tue molle Misuri i miei sogni con Il passaggio di Sunset in My shadow Ombra tramonto Il tramonto nella mia ombra viene riprodotto in scala "A", per violoncello, pianoforte, bandoneon, corda e tono.

    Makes Sound and Breaks Thunder : the time is action : The Wrists of Gold Melt your Sweet Chocolate to drop my Controls to Action. Stone God , Block of the Highest Order I’ll write in your Tomb : my Heart Bled Great for you to deny me in this plot of Heaven. I have planted seeds and the soil has not given birth : to the niche where the blood of etched oils of dust wept and where the serpent crawled to arrive to its own nest : my table is list my heart folds every second I weep no tears : my blood is hundreds of meters deep within my soil : plaid rest of your hearts desire you must continue firm : The Elements have gone all where only You can find them : and when She asks me again : I'll kiss you on the Golden Mound of Thunder : Melt away Time to your demise in my Arms of Stone : the sides of mountains that you see are all yours but I shall remain here to rest my soul for a Moment : the rains wept the valleys : lajar of the desserts : the flood of the lonely : the deep trench of a hearts desire : I seek to end this deep own cave with my eyes for your desire : Breath of Cold : Heart of Gold : make your wish True : sweep till the end is a channel.

    Parole Diamante del profondo Seminare le altezze Ioni della terra Parola sui cieli di ceramica Armi per tracciare le piante mari calmi di ebollizione Trance la pendenza al calderone tagliava radici ripida i sali di ferro Words Diamond of the Deep Seed the Heights Ions of the Earth Word on Ceramic Skies Weapons to Plot Plants Calm Seas of Boiling Trance the Slope To Cauldron Slashed Roots Steep the Salts of Iron Mots diamant de la profondeur semer les hauteurs Les Ions de la terre Mot sur les ciels en céramique Armes pour tracer des plantes Mer calme d'ébullition Transe la Pente Faire Bouillir les Racines Raide les Sels de Fer Worte Diamant der Tiefe Säte die Höhen Ionen der Erde Wort über Keramikhimmel Waffen zum Pflanzen von Pflanzen ruhige See des Kochens Trance die Steigung zu kesselgeschliffenen Wurzeln steil die Salze von Eisen


    I WILL DELIVER TO YOU THIS LETTER : YOU HAVE RECEIVED ALL MY REPLIES : I HOPE TO LEAVE IN PEACE WITH THE LOVE OF MY LIFE AND CONTINUE TO SEE FREEDOM IN EVERY WAY. EVERY DAY YOU TOLD ME TO STOP: I AM NEARING A STOP: We are retired: retired means retired… it means all our gray hairs will be from running around with our kods all over the place… not about busting chemical equations or handling cases of trouboe’s or torments. Our retirement means relaxing bliss and saying in ways of productivity we can completely achieve greatness again and again in a way where all the paid sacrifices were already given. Not return to the ways of Research…. There is nothing greater we can accomplish… (I need to rest, rest well!!!)

    Umluftstrom?! Warum habe ich so viel darüber nachgedacht, als es genau dort war: Es ist da: Es war die ganze Zeit da: Jetzt muss ich immer wieder darauf zurückkommen: Hast du gedacht, ich würde müde werden? How can this be? There was only one missing variable!!! They are Here!!! We are here!!! It is complete! I can't have greater joy than to listen to you. I met you and we'll be together forever. I called you Eons ago: why is this so disparaging so incomplete. There's much to set the mark and no east to set the message so lets look at the stars. You are beautiful. Today I'm in the mist of the shortest path I've ever been to love, to salvation, to bliss, to health. Im holding on to this moment : don't challenge me anymore , my bile is mine!

    Umluftstrom?! Warum habe ich so viel darüber nachgedacht, als es genau dort war: Es ist da: Es war die ganze Zeit da: Jetzt muss ich immer wieder darauf zurückkommen: Hast du gedacht, ich würde müde werden? How can this be? There was only missing one variable!!! They are Here!!! We are here!!! Its complete. I cant habe greater joy than tonlisyen to you. I met you and we'll be together forever. I called you Eons ago: why is this so disparaging so incomplete. There's much to set the mark and no east to set the message so lets look atbthe stars. You are beautiful. Today I'm in the mist of the shortest path I've ever been to lobe, to salvation, to bliss, to health. Im holding on to this moment : don't challenge me anymore , my bile is mine!

    Circulating air flow ?! Why did I think so much about it when it was right there: It's there: It's been there all the time: Now I have to keep coming back to it: Did you think I would get tired? How can this be? There was only one missing variable !!! They are here !!! We are here !!! Its complete. I can’t have more joy than to listen to you. I met you and we'll be together forever. I called you Eons ago: why is this disparaging so incomplete. There's much to set the mark and no east to set the message so lets look at the stars. You are beautiful. Today I'm in the mist of the shortest path I've ever been to lob, to salvation, to bliss, to health. Im holding on to this moment: do not challenge me anymore, my bile is mine

    Dearest: This is out of Control : I'm literally almost having a heart attack every day ... let's meet for coffee so we can talk... it is many fold times better if you call me: Please call me 7876859808… let's go for a drink (Dear God : Please make Everyone Understand the Earth is in Real Pain:. She weeps, she says she's sad , the air has reached it's limit to sustain the many lives of a healthy human population. I have reached the end of my life here as well… I can't keep up without a place I call home and a job to clean the Earth. Dear Earth I accept your position to save you , you called me , from everywhere , in every possible dimensions, Just you and me, wherever you want. Let me know ... It's extremely important (I know dove) I had once a dream of seeing the greatness in the eyes of my Republic , and I can't longer bear to watch or hear the controls of what are here in my hands ...

    Dear Bella, I am linked to Earth, She is sad, the rivers have met their path to starve the air of the gleam of light that surpasses each day the horizon to see humans teeming with life. I hear you Earth, she said, she tells me, The Air, Neo, has bounds to end the only means to life on the planet, but further still, in the cleanest place on Earth there is a mark she can no longer remove herself, and if she is dying I'm dying with her. This is no joke dear friend, dear love, dear mother. And there are people who keep their path to maintain a stay where nothing is still sacred... dear Sacred Earth, how have we failed you to live our life of fulfilling your mission to see greater glimmers of hope each day we surpass to the west your horizons. If you hadn't called me so hard for your strength of wishes I wouldn't be here writing to you in the only way I can, in the only way you may understand, my little one. I was born in 1981 years prior the explosion of the means to information and I've lived the path to say here: the end of the cycle of energy exploitation of the Earth is Here. Many will die in suffocation, in pain, in the worst choke the earth has seen, of minds, air and water, of hearts that the way of our ancestors was to poison our home. Keep this in mind little one, I did all I could to help save you from a true remission. I warned the Earth years ago... years and years ago I saw all of this happening and I must turn to solid rock into a hard pressed metallic core to withstand the pressure of all things collapsing into this moment: first: the predictions of the degrees on warmth are real... the climate has shifted on par with the total collapse the atmosphere , secondly, the air is tainted, the air is now on fire. For you to breathe a clean atmosphere there has to be an ultimate stop to imports and exports that harm our soils: clean vehicles, less ways of placing microscopic solids in the earth. But this great tilt in Understanding is the end of the Line... what this means is that from now on Earth will be cleaned in a mission with a transmission with no Reverse. I am linked to the Stars... this is no joke Bella, they are here to let you and me know... this is no joke we have come to the end of the line and must now return to a new way of living. On the Carrying Capacity Equation this means there is a term that is recursive, hysterical, iterative on the recycle that on the continuation of our ways there will be greater and greater collapses to change the ways of human civilization that means changes in the technology we make, the way we travel, the way we dress. The way we feared the path of self awareness to meet our place in this Earth means.


    Larga Noche de Verano Llevame a Casa Y que nunca despierte.
    Correre en tu desierto Buscando tu luz norte permanente Y al paso con, quien vamos
    Gente llega y Gente Va Todos inventamos el Norte La ruta en escapada El despido a lo extrangero El que nunca me conoces Y asi todos somos nuevamente extranos
    Big Bang y ya se acaba, Nunca existes Nunca me conoces Asi es la Muerte entre sus vidas Pero aun peor si no lo reconoces Asi mas pierdes la vida
    Gente llega y Gente Va Parranda Antillana al Globo Quien eres y Quienes somos Amigos en Familia Fantasmas en la ruta Por compartir Glorias Y el Sol lo dejamos Solo Y la la playa sigue meneando Gente llega y ya no te conozco Aunque sea de tu isla Aunque hayamos hablado Asi desaparecemos Y le preguntamos a la ciencia Si existe el alma Sigue buscando Tal parece que asi lo perdemos todo Gente llega y ya nos Vamos… Amores temporeros asi de quien sea Te presto mi lejano abrazo Asi le doy like a tu pagina Contacto de Perdidas Contacto de Olvidos y Lejanas calles Euclideanas
    Cuadros de perplejo en el olvido Detras de armarios detras de puertas Siguen en el paso caminando Llegando en cada momento sin fin Llegando en cada torpe despido Sin pedir perdon Solo de un paso al barranco Asi me olvido Y te veo que al paso te conozco Pero esa naturaleza, Asi somos fantasmas Gente que somos y no ser Ser y como que no conocer Saber y sin ser, somos colmo Gota que flota hirviendo Separada en la calle Tu gloria brilla por ser perdida Asi nunca te conozco
    Gente llega y asi nos dejamos Asi me lleva el mar en reversa A buscar amor en la Naturaleza Y asi te dedico mi proximo tantrum Buscando como que no llegas y no existes Asi te puedo hablar Palabreo que resiste epocas Saliva que perdura en la atmosfera Saliva que hierve en el paladar y la seca Saliva que nunca estorba Saliva que nunca llega Saliva que nunca sale
    Asi no podemos hablar Y que te pasa? Y que le pasa al Mundo? Y que le pasa a tus ojos? Porque lloras o porque no lloras?
    Porque no te pierdes encontrando? Asi te espero para que te vayas. Y algun dia estuvimos juntos, Big Band y Grand Desires … Los modelos del universo confirman que las galaxias se expanden y que algun dia estaremos solos y que tal si esto es el reflejo de nuestra conducta? Si estuviesemos solos en este Universo para darselo en lo que sea a progenie Y lo que fuese , es dejarlos solos, justaria que no hay cielo Justaria el proposito de ser Dioses y del Reflejo de lo que somos Pero si fuera politico asi te conociera para quitartelo todo
    Gente Llega y asi nos vamos… espero verte algun dia Tal vez en el Cielo Porque asi te recuerdo… aunque me olvides Asi soy, gravitacional… flecha que te deja saber que paso por ti de mensajes Si asi fuera lo que busca son tus palabras.
    Si corriera al norte para siempre descubriria en el frio del tiempo Bajo lo tenue de tu luz la raiz de los ciclos.
    No habra nadie quien te siga o me siga No hay respuestas Al descubrir tu y yo solos Noches de Verano Llevame a Casa…

    I can't even talk... We have met the limit, the limit keeps pushing us back... get ready... Earth is Weeping, Neo, I got the message. Reduce the variables. I wake up every day with a new message. It is not a joke. Today I finished the initial modeling of the boundary conditions on the reactor model. The variables are on the limit of .00000000000000000000000000003 several more days and I will be new, complete, on the way to the absolute recoverable path of all things... call me don't waste any more time... tell Marjie I miss her. Call me there is simply no time. Non posso nemmeno parlare ... Abbiamo raggiunto il limite, il limite continua a spingerci indietro ... prepararsi ... La Terra è in lacrime, Neo, ho ricevuto il messaggio. Riduci le variabili. Mi sveglio ogni giorno con un nuovo messaggio. Non è uno scherzo. Oggi ho terminato la modellazione iniziale delle condizioni al contorno sul modello del reattore. Le variabili sono al limite di 0,00000000000000000000000000003 molti altri giorni e sarò nuovo, completo, sulla strada per il percorso assolutamente recuperabile di tutte le cose ... chiamami non perdere altro tempo ... dì a Marjie che mi manca. Chiamami non c'è semplicemente tempo. Reactor Boundary Conditions Tables Ready. Ready for Lunch in (t)_o? Battery Pack down to 1/00000000000000000000000lit. The position of the sun is +-6 on the ecliptical - the degrees on latitude. We are absolutely laughing at this one.... but It's not a joke , we met the end: Acceleration_0 , engineers we broke the Barrier! Congratulations... now let's get back to work... there's plenty to do ... I'll never get tired ... just hold on to me... this rock is extremely heavy loaded. Raise the Flag! Now Theta Sleep!!! Dear this is not iambic this is as flammable as it gets. Call home, I'm coming home as fast as humanly possible. There is an equation : Variable Reductions :

    This Bond that the World is Ours This Place that Our Love is Forever This Time that Our Truth is Shining In Place Due Time Ours Over Forever Tense Relax Do On Time Over Slay Silent in Truth Our Time Rests Forever Right here from Where We Were Unravelings … Unravelings

    EVOLUPTIVEADAPTATION ANTHROPOECONOMICAL DRIVING OF EVOLUTION FAILURE PSYCHOETIOLOGICAL FRAGMENTATION OF ETHOS ECOPSYCHOETIOLOGICAL PRIMING AND RACISM RACISM AND SLAVERY AGAINST THE HOLOCAUST NEUROADAPTIVE REGULATION MUSIC PLEASURE NEUROADAPTIVE LIMITS AND ECONOMY NEUROSCIENCE LIMITS AND ORBITAL MOLECULAR THEORY APPLIED TO THE BRAIN AND PLANET JUSTICE AGAINST AND IN FAVOR OF TECHNOLOGICAL DRIVERS TIED TO SELF AWARENESS WITHIN THE UNIVERSE AND PHARMACOLOGY EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY AGAINST METHODS OF WAR For Humans to Have Emerged the Dinosaurs must have agreed on a Sentinel → Upon Strike the Effect of the Sentinel filtered mass to flux a position to advantage Humans → Upon Human Generation the Earth developed Beauty and Balance Economy → Hierarchical Beauty from the Microscopic to the Macro generated the food Pyramid → Humans then Generated the Pyramid to Illustrate to the Sky → That Human was ready for the next step in progress → Humans understood that the Sky generated the Landscape and all Beauty was Perfect → Microscale Analysis of Defunction on Degeneration of the Balance induced the idea of [ ] → In bad use of the [ ] idea , the Kingdom of Humans, who the sky had generated perfect for administration of the Earth took the Visible Kingdoms to Progress → Humans then Understood that the Invisible Kingdoms formed part of the Heavens when Rocks from the Sky contained elements for the generation of Life → Upon the Complete Understanding of the Flux of Life Humans Awaited Contact from other civilizations but it was in the Misunderstanding that Humans in Earth Contained all the elements to understand the Universe → Conflict between Humans for the Use of Resources generated The → The separation of Humans in Flux with the Earth generated diversity in the Planet with Consensus to the Beauty that the Earth is Living and that the Beauty of the Resources is Unlimited
    The Competition for Resources drove Humans to Compete Against Each other: One Negative and One Positive returns a negative if the Outcome of the Options isn’t the Totality of the Addition. The imaginary concept of Truth reveals the Option of acknowledgement of the values of addition. A True sum can return False if the acknowledgement is ignored. This presents a major problem of Mathematics.
    In Persons One Negative and Another Negative return a positive if the Outcome is the Self Reflection of the Conclusion but in the Presencce of Other Humans the Factor of - or + becomes present as an over/under factor. This realization forms the foundation of Numbers for which an Integer may not be complete and in this form decisions were generated on scale and evaluated on outcome. In the presence of one outcome if the observation and actions to form decisions is negative, the one negative presents itself as one against the totality and in observation , vectorically the one negative is present in contrast to the totality. When the condition of one negative is presented it induces or could induce another negative through propagation of ideas. The effect of generating one negative could propagate until the negative balances out with the positive, and it could also generate a conversion to the totality into a secondary negative or positive, which then becomes another metric for evaluation and in this form the progress of evaluation is obscured when evaluated only in the present. The values of positive and negative are in metric to the present, in the consequence of generation of values the negative becomes evident contrarian to the idea of progress because positve overcomes negative and it is in the generation of more that the evolution of evaluation is progress. The distribution of numbers in frequency generated the quantum table of the elements and within the numbers in its existence in detectable levels the frequency produces a distribution of probability. Probability over another Probability introduces negation to a previous or underlying probability hiding the true probability when the overlying.

    The idea that Humans did not have a Trascendental Constitution was a posible outcome when the forms of communication limit the recognition of form of how humans can verify that their Constitution is Absolute and Contained within the body. Resolving the Problem of the Trascendental Constitution illustrated the dimensions of Humans Sound, Matter, Distance, Time, Constants and Parameters as well as Frames of Reference.

    The generation of methods of consumption with machines gave humans the opportunity to develop methods of machinery that separated Humans within groups that contained dfferent methods of production and when humans began to take advantage of other humans, the root of conflict Identification of Dimensions through the use of substances granted Humans the Foundation of Mathematics. Upon Dissociative Experiences and the Experience of Travel and Perception Humans denoted the derivation of Mathematics. Also geometrical projections and the observation that the Earth is a Sphere and the Other Planets rotate around. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND HUMAN TORTURE The Black Hole solved the Problem of Human Torture against Artificial Intelligence
    Human Torture can be so horrendous that is inimaginable that a human subject may be subjected to a reduction in feel so horrendous to be feedback reintroduced to the subject using digital methods to introduce infinite pain. IMAGINATION IN THE CONSIDERATION OF PAIN AND EXECUTION Thinking in the negative for pleasure reward is a limit to Cultural Integration. Thinking in the negative for pleasure reward is base for Criminal Behavior EARTH IS A LIVING BEING I’m In Love with Earth. The Earth has been confirmed as a Living Being. Once I told the Earth, Tierra haz algo que los humanos no te detectan, and I have been told that the Earth responded to this by rapidly shifting the Magnetic Poles. Magnetic Pole Motion was understood prior to this as a physical phenomenon and it removed the Subtle Element of Soul to the Earth. The Earth is Alive, it has veins, it breathes and moves and responds to the actions of humans.


    DIMENSIONS [- - - 0 - - -] The Realization of sub integer dimensions resulted from the observation of microscopic life. Upon the discovery of the Atom a further realization of dimensions became evident and separate from Human Observation. Subatomic Calculations Required the use of the Imagination and in this form the use of Mathematics generated more than the observed physical dimensions. Then Humans Extended the Dimensions from the Understanding of the projections external to the body: Thermal, Electrical, Magnetic, Sound, Matter. Morphological Geology revealed that the Earth was visited in the Past. Mountains were shaped by the use of an energy source or a subtle form of molding that gave rise to mountains with shapes containing the codes to the Elements. Ancient Civilizations with the capability of Space Travel visited our planet. The footprint of the landing of Space Ships was replicated through the planet to illustrate to humans that space travel was possible and that the Formation of the Earth Depended on its interior and exterior forces. These are the forces that communicated to humans the principles of the foundations of matter. Without the realizaton of the involvement of Extra-Terrestrial forces Humans lacked the understanding that they shared the Unverse with Humans.

    An Image or a Sound is a Prion if it is intercepted by the Senses.

    FORMULA ZERO: Herbs to Bubbles: Who we are in the World and how it MATTERS


    Note from SSSFFF: The realization that we are made up of SOUND is not an easy concept.This exerpt of molecular dynamic theory should help explaining the concept:

    H = G + ST , Gibbs and Helmholtz equation : Life in a Breeze of Filled Bubbles... On one side a Fire on the Other Side stirred up bubbles. what side draws on or from chaos, in time or out of time, or from order (S). What is Order without Temperature, you'd ask. -Order and Temperature are related like air on wind... would there be wind without air? No. Would there be air without wind? Yes. There's order without temperature, but in our universe nothing exists outside of temperature, all air has an aspect of wind. The bubbles refract the light from the fire... from where I sat I could see the entire history of the Universe. We paused the fire for a moment and took a light to outline the shiny unsteady flowing chromed spheres... you see the sphere... there's the entirety of the Gibss-Helmholtz equation, technically defined to outline the Gibbs free energy, allowable to do work. Work holds us in cells Aiana, our tasks are to not dissolve away and to run steadily forward, you see, a cell is like a bubble, a mass of hydrophobic ends stabilized by their attractions to each other, and they related order in shapes to conserve their stability-in-energy, like us humans, pockets of energy trying to conserve our shape held by the hydrophobic bonds of the skin into the air, into the heat and into the earth... The Gibbs free energy of a body expresses how much amount energy can give away without decomposing (closed systems don't exchange matter, only heat from their surroundings). All you need to know from Everything is related through this equation: electrodynamics, phase changes, equilibrium lines, changes in state, and states of organization... one day I'll show the math, when calculators are later invented but now in 1649 all you have to understand is that there's an enormous energy surrounding your physical body that keeps you centered in the material-physical version of existence... and that without this energy you would dissolve away, much like the bubble into the fire... air into blood, without this energy you would disappear, and while the matter inside and outside is air much like air outside the bubble, the beauty of its colors, its refractions and the apparently fragile bonds they form are explained through a notion so extremely deep that it can't be expressed, it can only be imagined... and so our emotions are shrouded in other notions of a body we hold, that's also physical, that we understand now as the lymphatic system, and the mind, we now undersand it as the nervous system, and they also have their functions of chaos between beauty expression and existence and we trouble ourselves trying to find their hidden levels of expression gouging deep into matter without realizing that like air they are just as invisible inside the bubble but are only expressed when the level of organization and temperature held, by drives and held by the grace of our environment. Anyday the sum of forces, or sun, may arise and erase this sentence from ever reaching you. Her eyes essentially ran through everything... one day we'll make ourselves like the bubble, factories of who we are and burst them like they mean nothing and I could be here watching the fire while the world bursts into flames and machines like the one you told me earlier, radios relate the way the wind throws fire to the bubbling waters and chromatic spheres into the flames and in the end a dark spill of lack of arrangements... she understood. and the water dried into the ground and the story was over... from all the essences of our notions we can draw ourselves away, extremely to recreate our image into what is reflected without exploding it. Yes, we think, but we are only you and I. and Mother. She has your brother in a bubble... and he can hear you now. from there she could see the entire history of the universe, and we kept our words onto the horizon... What would you do? That's what we don't know, you one day will have the answer. How could I select everything for you? Don't worry we only have time to share and time never ends. ...when Nilo was 3 I asked him to draw something he feared... what do you fear Nilo? Nilo drew a big monster... now Nilo draw fear... what do you see? his eyes were hazed purple unchanged from birth, dark black like Mother's and the moments he gazed around for an answer are the moments I relive when I can't see him, -you can't see anything... exploring around learning... where is fear certain? Nilo was still young to go over theories of psychoanalysis but early he understood that words were only vessels filled of imagination, and he became fearless earlier than I anticipated.

    INCENTIVE STEP FUNCTIONS Drug Addiction that leads to lack of productivity presents a major problem in communities that results in a negative feedback which could be unsolvable if lack of options aren’t presented. Ensuring that low performers are stimulated to progress is a complex problem for which active participation of community leaders is progress. Ensuring that the community doesn’t inhibit its constituents from progressive growth through any means, denigration, stigma, lack of work, bad health or lack of resources is a major challenge. Too many people are falling into the hospice loop of drug-rehab-unemployment. There is no justification for watching people suffer the lack of empathy, lack of caring. We have a chance to give people healthy livable lives through involvement. This leads to Family: planning, caring, options, all that includes that those disenfranchised are taken care of. Governmental incentive steps upon completion of Projects i.e. scholarly, civil, judicial, athletic, and recognition Zoned Development District Voting System for Continuous Evaluation of Proposals Web forums for live, day to day progress of negotiations. One District represents the entire World. I am exploding at the possibilities to share with you the halls of Congress. In person we can share more about how Trump betrayed the best interest of our Nation.

    Note: This site is Non-Political: this site seeks to balance use and resources.

    I want you to remember that you are not alone, the embrace of your goals will not be difficult, people are supporting of your ideas so implementation will never be difficult. What we will see will be the Improvement and Reconstruction of a Nation looking for responsible change, and everyone wants to do it with you. We are all in this together, and I look forward to establishing a direct connection to complete the goals for which you are in direction. yours, Yerai Oliveras

    Editor @ The Synthetic Forest 787-685-9808 or 970-216-7323

    text us for collaborations!!



    Goddess The Allowable

    Print of the Desert

    Wave of Celestial Desire

    Built to your Coast

    Here until Tomorrow





    FALL HAIKU Change